Size of Canada 2 nd largest country in the world 10 provinces, 3 territories Differences Pop. size & wealth Provs. are self-governed while territories are controlled by the Federal govt. (Provs. have more political voice in Ottawa) Territorial Formula Financing Federal aid given to territories to help them develop >75% of pop. lives where? U.S./Canadian border = world’s longest unguarded border Megalopolis of Canada: Quebec City, Montreal, Ottawa, TORONTO!, Windsor
Landforms of Canada -Appalachian Mtns. -Canadian Shield = dominant landform/rich in minerals -Interior Plains -Rocky Mountains extend into British Columbia
CLIMATES OF CANADA -SE Canada *Humid-continental -Central *Subarctic -South Central *Semi-arid -British Columbia *Highland -Arctic *Tundra -Warmest part of Canada *SW British Columbia
NEW FRANCE -First Europeans: -Vikings—Leif Ericson (1,000 CE) -British—John Cabot (1497) -French—Jacques Cartier (1535) -Goals: 1. Northwest Passage 2. Fur Trade 3. Spread the word of God
British North America -1713: Brits took Nova Scotia -French were “deported” -Brit./Fr. competition for Canada led to war -1756 – 1759 -British settlement increased -Provinces were fragmented until…
Dominion of Canada (1867): *united the fragmented provinces into one independent country Dominion: a territory or sphere of influence Govt: Constitutional Monarchy Parliament: Lawmaking body Similar to U.S. Congress Prime Minister: Head of the executive branch Similar to U.S. president Capital city: Ottawa Ties betw. Canada & England: 1. both have a parliament 2. both share the Queen
Economy of Canada MDC Most work in Tertiary & Quaternary industries Free market (U.S.) Largest trade partner?
Atlantic Provinces -New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland & Labrador = Canada’s hinterland *a region that lies far away from major pop. centers -separated from other “British” provinces by Quebec -Canada’s poorest region (high unemployment)
QUEBEC -St. Lawrence Lowlands = high pop density -Culture & Language of Quebec? -Quebecois = French-Canadians -Parti Quebecois (PQ) *Quebec’s separatist political party -Quebec Sovereignty Movement (1995)? -IF Quebec became independent? 1. Eastern provinces would be separated from others 2. Western provinces may also demand independence
Ontario -Wealthiest & most populated -Where do most live? -Toronto = “NYC” of Canada -Culture of Ontario? -Canada’s capital city?
British Columbia -Location = *Access to Pacific rim countries -Canada’s third-largest urban region = Vancouver PACIFIC COAST
canadian north -Federally governed Territories: *Yukon *NW Territories *Nunavut (“Our Land”) -1999: Canada ceded Nunavut to the Inuit
Canadian issues -Nationalism: feeling of pride/loyalty in one’s country -Regionalism: support for one’s region over one’s country -threatens to break Canada up -Separatism: belief that certain parts of a country should be independent -Conflicts: 1. Ontario & Quebec dominate Ottawa? 2. Cultural differences betw. Ontario & Quebec 3. Alberta wants to keep more oil revenues 4. BC feels left out due to distance from Ottawa
ECONOMIC TIES -Canada’s #1 trade partner is -NAFTA (1994) = U.S.A. NORTH AMERICANFREETRADEAGREEMENT