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The World of Islam 600-1500.

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Presentation on theme: "The World of Islam 600-1500."— Presentation transcript:

1 The World of Islam

2 The Arabs Nomadic, organized into tribes, lived in the Arabian Peninsula Ruled by a sheik Farmers, sheepherders Ruled the caravan trade, carried goods along Silk Road

3 The Arabs Polytheistic, religious center Mecca
Mecca- sacred black stone called Kaaba Supreme god Allah

4 Life of Muhammad Born in Mecca, became caravan merchant
Received revelations from God and angel Gabriel Revelations became the Quran (635) Muhammad was God’s prophet, religion became Islam Gained followers, moved to Medina Journey called Hijrah, year 622, year 1 on Muslim calendar

5 Life of Muhammad Muslims saw no separation between political and religious authority Muhammad political, religious leader 630 return to Mecca, conquer city, convert all to Islam Kaaba becomes sacred shrine of Islam

6 Teachings of Muhammad Islam monotheistic
Salvation, afterlife, submit to will of Allah Muhammad not divine Acts of worship Five Pillars of Islam Law Code- shari’ah, applies Quran to daily life Regulates all parts of life- religion, government, civic life

7 Five Pillars of Islam Islam means “to submit to the will of God”
Belief Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage

8 Arab Empire and Successors
632 death of Muhammad , left no successor Abu Bakr named caliph, capital Medina Islamic movement began to grow Quran permitted fair, defensive warfare- jihad 636 Arabs defeat Byzantines 640 take over Syria 642 Egypt and North Africa 650 Persian Empire

9 Arab Rule Reasons for success Arab rulers tolerant
Conquered people not required to convert to Islam, just pay taxes and be loyal to Muslim rule Weakness of Byzantine, Persian Empires- Arabs seen as liberators. Simple direct message of Islam (no religious hierarchy) Abu Bakr no successor, fight over who would be caliph Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali ruler for five years


11 Umayyads 661 Muawiyah becomes caliph, established Umayyad Dynasty
Center of power- Damascus, Syria. Conquered rest of North Africa, conquered Iberian Peninsula (major Islamic city Cordoba) 732 Muslim army defeated at Battle of Tours, halted expansion in Western Europe

12 Umayyads 732 Muslim army defeated at Battle of Tours, halted expansion in Western Europe 717 Muslim navy defeated Constantinople Arab advance ended Empire southern Mediterranean, Spain, Southwest Asia, Central Asia

13 Split in Islam Internal struggles, succession, Arabs vs. non Arabs
680 revolt against Umayyad rule Led by grandson of Muhammad Two groups emerge Shiite, Sunni Shiite- accepted descendants of Ali as true rulers Sunni accept Umayyad rulers

14 Abbasid Dynasty Umayyad rule declined from corruption, resentment by non- Arabs 750 Abu- Abbas overthrew Umayyad, established Abbasid Dynasty Abbasid capital Baghdad New cultural outlook- not warriors but judges, merchants, government officials

15 Abbasid Dynasty Period of tolerance for non- Arab Muslims
Support for learning and the arts Growing prosperity because they controlled the trade routes between Asia and Europe

16 Abbasid Dynasty Fights over succession of caliphate
Financial corruption Caliphs recruited Persians and Turks for positions in military and civil service Rulers of provinces break away from central authority, establish independent dynasties (Spain, Morocco, Egypt)

17 Seljuk Turks Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt and Abbasid’s used Turks for soldiers 1055 Turks capture Baghdad Abbasid Caliph was the religious leader. Seljuk's held political, military power 1071 Seljuk’s defeat Byzantines and take over Anatolian Peninsula

18 Crusades Byzantine Emperor asks Christian Europe for help, began a series of Crusades 1066 Saladin defeated Christian invaders in Jerusalem (1187) Beginning of mistrust between Muslims and Christians

19 Mongols Mongols early 13th century came from Central Asia controlled most of Eurasia Goal was to create terror so people would not fight back 1258 attacked Baghdad burned schools, libraries, mosques. Ended Abbasid Dynasty Mongols eventually intermarried with locals, converted to Islam Result of Mongol invasions new center of Islamic culture Cairo ,Egypt

20 Islamic Civilization Period of 700-1500 Arab Empire prosperous
Trade with Asia, Africa, Europe Trade led to rise of cities (Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, Cordoba) Cities better than European cities at the time Cities administrative, cultural, economic and trade centers Vast majority made their living herding, farming

21 Cities of the Islamic Empires
Cities had distinctive physical appearance Palaces, mosques, fountains, secluded courtyards, marketplace (bazaar)

22 Art and Architecture Mosques dominated cities, symbolic of Muslim architecture Dome, arch adopted from Byzantines (Romans) Walls and ceilings decorated with mosaics, abstract and geometric patterns, no human representation in religious art Grand palaces

23 Muslim Manufactured Goods
Artisans produced leather (Spain), steel tools, swords (Damascus), cotton textiles (Egypt), carpets (Persia) Trade led to new business practices, bought and sold on credit, sophisticated accounting

24 Islamic Society Muslims live life according to Allah’s teaching in the Quran- politics, economics, social life followed Islamic teachings Society more open than in Medieval Europe Social mobility possible All people were equal (except slaves, but they were treated fairly) Women – inherit property, ask for divorce Women and men social and spiritual equals Men could have more than one wife, had to pay a dowry

25 Culture of Islam Muslim civilization influenced by traditions of diverse cultures Greeks, Romans, Persians, India Arabs translated Greek works of Plato, Aristotle, math texts from India Europeans discovered works of Greek philosophers from Arabic translations Paper brought from China led to booksellers, libraries

26 Philosophy, Science, History
Pioneered study of algebra Developed medicine as a scientific field of study, advances in public health Wrote medical text became standard in Europe for 500 years (Muhammad al- Razi) Europeans attended medical schools in Spain Scientific study of history Studied astronomy (observatory in Baghdad) Perfected astrolabe, used for ocean navigation

27 Muslim Literature Tradition of oral poetry Omar Khayyam’s Rubaiyat
Collection of oral tales of adventure, romance, anecdotes set in Baghdad Nights

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