Presentation on theme: "URBANIZATION: DEFINITION: - Urbanization is the growth of towns in human numbers, which leads directly to the expansion of the town limits. CHARACTERISTICS:"— Presentation transcript:
URBANIZATION: DEFINITION: - Urbanization is the growth of towns in human numbers, which leads directly to the expansion of the town limits. CHARACTERISTICS: * It changes in functions as a settlement from a rural to urban character. *It is developed due to increase in number of people coming into a town. * It causes proportional increase in the physical size of the town. *Example of modern urban centers are: New York, London, Paris, Moscow, Lagos, Accra, Ibadan,Ksano, Enugu, Pretoria e. t. c.
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR URBANIZATION OR GROWTH OF URBAN SETTLEMENT. The following factors are considered : * Accessibility i. e efficient transport networks. *Economic activities e. g commerce, farming, mining e.t c. *Provision of social amenities like: pipe borne-water, electricity e.t.c. *Naturally fertile soils and well drained, which gives agriculture a boost. *Absence of disaster, both natural and man-made disasters. * Land topography or relief, that is lowland in nature but not rugged. *Conducive climate[ sufficient rainfall e.t.c.].
PROBLEMS OF URBANIZATION OR INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF URBAN SETTLEMENT. The problems of urbanization are as follows: *Increase in demand for goods and services. * Increase in demand for social amenities. * Increase in social vices or crime such as : armed robbery, hired assassins, car snatching e.t.c. * Reduction in Agricultural land. * High cost of living, because of the fewness in facilities and goods. *Environmental deterioration e. g water, land, air pollutions e.t.c. * Traffic congestion. * Housing congestion. * increase in the number of well qualified people into cities, leads to increase in labour force. *Unemployment. *Other urban problems are: floods and epidemic diseases [ measles, typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera].
MIGRATION: DEFINITION. *Migration is movement of people from one Geographical area to another. * It involves permanent or temporary residence or settlement. * The place where people leave is the ‘’ source region’’; while the place where people enter into is the ‘’receiving or destination region’’. TYPES OF MIGRATION There are two types of migration : * Emigration : it is the movement of people out of the country. *Immigration : It is the process in which people enter into another country. FORM OF MIGRATION : *Rural – Urban migration i. e movement of people from villages to urban centers. * Rural-rural migration i.e movement from one rural area to another.
FORMS OF MIGRATION [CONT]: *Urban- rural migration i. e movement from urban center to rural area. *Urban- urban migration i. e movement from one town or city to another. *International migration i. e movement from one country into another.*Seasonal migration i.e movement of people for summer holidays. *Transhumance.*Nomadism.*Tourism. * Tourism. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR MIGRATION: * Natural disasters such as floods, famine e.t.c. *Unfavourable physical conditions of a place e.g climate, soils e.t.c. *Pressure of population on the available land. *Insecurity, caused by political instability and war. *Unevenness /differences in economic opportunities e. g of jobs and business transactions. * Changes in status [level of education and wealth]. * Differences in social amenities /infrastructures e.g water, road, electricity.
ADVANTAGES OF MIGRATION. * It reduces population pressure on Agricultural land use at the source region. * Population pressure is reduced on social amenities. * It supplies migrant labour at the receiving region. * It ensures the flow of capital to the source region. * It allows social amenities to develop at the receiving region. * It boost markets at the receiving region. * It promotes cultural integration. DISADVANTAGES OF MIGRATION. *It breeds social vices at the receiving region. * High cost of living at the receiving region. * Pressure on social amenities at the receiving region. * Migration of able -bodied men at the source region. * Congestion in housing and transportation at the receiving region. * Decline in production at the source region. *It breeds unemployment at the receiving region. *It leads to cultural disintegration at the destination region.
OTHER FORMS OF MIGRATION ARE AS FOLLOWS: [A] VOLUNTARY MIGRATION : * A trip to the oversea countries for a religious pilgrimage[ e.g Jerusalem, Mecca] * * To attend higher institution. *To join ones husband in any of the oversea countries. [B] FORCED MIGRATION: Examples of this are as follows : *Tribal war. *Political unrest. * Famine. Natural disasters [ Earth quake, Tsunami, flood].
ASSIGNMENT. [A]Explain the characteristics of the following : *Rural-rural migration. *urban-urban migration. *rural-urban migration. *International migration. [B]With relevant examples, explain the impact of rural-urban migration on the developing countries of the world. REFERENCES:  Senior secondary Geography by S. A. Emielu. 2008. Essential Geography for senior secondary school by O. A. Iwena.