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Chemical and Physical Features of Seawater and the World Ocean

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical and Physical Features of Seawater and the World Ocean"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical and Physical Features of Seawater and the World Ocean

2 The Waters of the Ocean All matter is made of atoms
Elements are made from one kind of atom A molecule is two or more different atoms combined


4 The Unique Nature of Pure Water

5 Water is a polar molecule
One end is positively charged and the other is negatively charged

6 The attraction between the negative end of a water molecule and the positive end of another water molecule give rise to a “weak” attractive force known as hydrogen bonds.

7 The Three States of Water
Only substance on Earth to naturally exist in three states! Solid water molecules pack close together & locked in fixed three dimensional pattern Becomes more dense until about 4°C (get less dense) & expands


9 When water freezes in fresh and marine water the ice forms on top allowing organisms to live underneath the ice When marine water freezes it acts like an insulator to stop freezing all the water


11 Water as a Solvent Dissolve more things than any other natural substance (universal solvent) especially salts In water, strong ion charges attract water molecule, water molecules surround the ions and pull them apart (dissociation)


13 Seawater Characteristics due to nature of pure water & materials dissolved in it Dissolved solids due to chemical weathering of rocks on land & hydrothermal vents

14 Wieliczka Salt Mine in southern Poland


16 Salt Composition Salinity is the total mass, expressed in grams, of all inorganic substances dissolved in one kilogram of sea water (with additional stipulations, we’ll ignore) Sodium chloride account for 85% of all solids dissolved

17 Salinity Measurement Often measured in parts per thousand
Abbreviated ppt or o/oo Average salinity of the ocean is about 35 o/oo.

18 Red Sea salinity is about 40 ‰ Baltic Sea salinity is about 6 to 8 ‰
Example: 1000g of sea water is evaporated. 35g of salts remain behind. Salinity of the sample would be said to be 35 parts per thousand Red Sea salinity is about 40 ‰ Baltic Sea salinity is about 6 to 8 ‰

19 Why is Red Sea salinity so high and the Baltic Sea so low?

20 Salinity, Temperature, and Density
Get denser as it gets saltier, colder, or both -2° to 30°C temps. below zero possible because saltwater freezes a colder temps. Density controlled more by temperature than salinity There are exceptions therefore salinity & temp need to be measured to determine density

21 Dissolved Gases O2, CO2 and N2 in atmosphere & sea surface
80% of gasses is carbon dioxide Gas exchange happens between the surface & atmosphere Dissolved gas concentration higher in cold water, lower in warm water

22 Dissolved Gases Amount of oxygen in water is affected by photosynthesis & respiration Most oxygen is released into the atmosphere More susceptible to oxygen depletion than atmosphere

23 Transparency Sunlight can penetrate, but it’s affected by the material suspended in the water Important to the photosynthetic organisms Runoff makes coastal waters less transparent than deep blue waters of open ocean

24 Pressure On land, organisms are under 1 atm at sea level
Marine organism have the pressure of the atmosphere & water With every 10m increase depth another atm is added Submarines & housing must be specially engineered to withstand pressure


26 As atms increase gases are compressed
Organism have air bladders, floats and lungs that shrink and collapse Limits depth range, some organism are injured when brought to the surface.

27 Barotrauma- physical damage due to significant changes in ambient pressure
-Uncontrolled assent from an extended deep dive can cause a condition known as decompression sickness or “the bends”

28 A Yelloweye rockfish having a bad day.

29 PRESSURE DEMO! What a difference an atmosphere can make!

30 END

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