7 A __________________is one in which no more solute can be dissolved Solutions can be composed of varying proportions of a given solute in a given solvent --- vary in concentration (measurement of the amount of solute)A __________________is one in which no more solute can be dissolvedSATURATED SOLUTION
8 WATER IS POLAR UNIVERSAL SOLVENT _______________(water solutions) are universally important to living thingsWater is the __________________AQUEOUS SOLUTIONSUNIVERSAL SOLVENT
10 “Like dissolves like” HYDROPHILIC ____________________ means “water loving”_________ molecules try to _________ and touch water or ______________ moleculesPOLARBE NEAROTHER POLARWater makes a great solvent inliving things because so manymolecules found in living thingsare polar or have a charge.
11 NONPOLAR MOLECULES Nonpolar molecules do not ________ well in water. DISSOLVENonpolar molecules do not ________ well in water.When they are placed in water the _____________are more attracted to ___________than to the nonpolar moleculesOIL AND WATER DO NOT MIXWATER MOLECULESEACH OTHER
12 “Like dissolves like” HYDROPHOBIC “Like dissolves like”HYDROPHOBIC_________________ means “water fearing”___________ molecules try to _________ other __________ molecules and __________ ________ moleculesNON-POLARBE NEARNON-POLARAWAY FROMPOLAROil based paints dissolvein solvents such asturpentine. . . not water.
13 The same molecule can have both POLAR and NON-POLAR parts EX: PHOSPHOLIPIDSThe same molecule can have both POLAR and NON-POLAR partsPolar headNON-polar tails
14 This is very important to organisms. The shape and function of the cell membranes depend on the interaction of ________ water with _______________membrane moleculesPOLARNON-POLAR
15 THIS IS A VERY GOOD THING! CELL MEMBRANEWater crosses the cell membrane all the time.Since it is composed of ______________molecules it will attract water but not be dissolved by water.THIS IS A VERY GOOD THING!POLAR AND NON-POLAR
16 “Like dissolves like” NON-polar end ______ works because it has a _____________ that dissolves _______ and a __________ that dissolves in _____ to wash away oily dirt.SOAPGREASEPOLAR ENDWATER
17 SuspensionsSubstances that don’t dissolve but separate into tiny pieces.Water keeps the pieces suspended so they don’t settle out.
18 YOUR MOST IMPORTANT SOLUTION AND SUSPENSION Your blood is BOTH a solution and a suspension.It has dissolved compounds in it.Your blood cells are not dissolved in the solution. The plasma in the blood helps to hold up or suspend the blood cells.When your heart stops pumping then the cells will fall out of suspension.
19 DISSOCIATION OF WATERBreaking apart of the water molecule into two ions of opposite charge (due to strong attraction of oxygen atom of one molecule for H atom of another water molecule)H2O H+ (hydrogen ion) + OH- (hydroxide ion)
20 DISSOCIATION OF WATER H2O H+ + OH- A water molecule can react to form ______IONSH2O H+ + OH-Hydrogen IonHydroxide Ion
21 Atoms/ions important for living things Used to make bigger moleculesIons = electrically charged atoms____________Carbon - C____________Oxygen - OSodium – Na+Chloride – Cl-Hydrogen - HPotassium – K+Nitrogen - NCalcium – Ca++Sulfur - SHydrogen – H+Phosphorus - P
22 ACIDS AND BASESOne of the most important aspects of a living system is the degree of __________ or ____________ACIDITYALKALINITYAcids are sour or tart: vinegar, lemon and orange juice, wine, aspirin.Bases are bitter: coffee, tonic water, baking soda, antacid tablets, soap.
23 pH Scale 0-14 LOGARITHMIC SCALE _________________ for comparing the relative concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a solutionranges in #’s from_________0-14Each pH is 10X stronger than nextThat means that a solution that is ph 1 is 10 times stronger than a solution that is ph 2
24 pHThe term "pH" was invented in 1909 by the Danish chemist Søren Sørensen.It stands for ______________ which means "potential hydrogen".pondus hydrogenii
25 The pH Scale ACID BASE NEUTRAL pH 0 – 6.99 is an _______
26 WHEN pH PAPER IS USED IN LAB IT WILL TURN A PARTICULAR COLOR TO INDICATE WHETHER THE SOLUTION IS ACIDIC, NEUTRAL, OR ALKALINE.
27 > Acids hydrogen ions (H+) GREATER (H+) (OH-) Number of __________________in solutions is ____________ than the number of hydroxide ions (OH-)GREATER>(H+)(OH-)The ________ the pH #the _________ the ACIDThe ___________ the pH #the ___________ the ACIDHIGHERWEAKERLOWERSTRONGER
29 > Bases hydroxide ions(OH-) GREATER (OH-) (H+) Number of __________________in solutions is ____________ than the number of hydrogen ions (H+)GREATER>(OH-)(H+)The ________ the pH #the _________ the BASEThe ___________ the pH #the ___________ the BASEHIGHERSTRONGERLOWERWEAKER
33 REVIEW pH 7.0 is__________ the _______the pH the stronger the ACID LOWERthe _______the pH the stronger the ACIDthe _________the pH the stronger the BASEpH 7.0 is__________HIGHERNEUTRALBASEACID
34 What does the arrow indicate? What does the arrow indicate? REVIEWPH VALUE ?PH VALUE ?PH VALUE ?What does the arrow indicate?What does the arrow indicate?
35 Control of pH is very important CONTROLLING pHControl of pH is very importantMost _____________ function only within a very narrow pHHOMEOSTASIS is accomplished with ___________ made by the bodyBuffers keep a neutral pH (pH 7)ENZYMESBUFFERS
36 Buffers _________ small amounts of either an acid or base added to a solution NEUTRALIZEComplex buffering systems maintain the ______________of your body’s many fluids at normal and safe levelspH VALUES
37 BUFFERSWe have “added” special buffers to medications to help with keeping the pH in the stomach neutral.
39 pH AND YOU Human blood pH should be slightly alkaline 7.35 - 7.45. Below or above this range means symptoms and disease.If blood pH moves below 6.8 or above 7.8, cells stop functioning and the body dies.The body therefore continually strives to balance pH. (HOMEOSTASIS)When this balance is compromised many problems can occur.
40 PROBLEMS WITH ph: ACIDOSIS THIS IS EXTRA STUFF: DO NOT HAVE TO KNOW FOR THE TESTPROBLEMS WITH ph: ACIDOSIS
41 THIS IS WHY PARENTS AND TEACHERS ARE ALWAYS “NAGGING” YOU TO EAT THE PROPER FOODS! YOUR PARENTS LOVE YOU AND TEACHERS CARE ABOUT YOU---BUNCHES!
42 NEXT YEAR IN CHEMISTRY YOU WILL LEARN A LOT MORE ABOUT PH.