General Chemistry Terms See pgs. 26-41 Chemistry: –Science that deals with structure of matter –Refers to the physiology side of this class Matter: 3 types (solid, liquid and gas)
Atoms Atom: –Smallest stable unit of matter Three subatomic particles: –Protons: –Neutrons: –Electrons:
Atoms (continued) Can you calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons for ANY element on the periodic table? REMEMBER: Protons = Atomic # Electrons = # of protons Neutrons = Atomic Mass # minus Atomic # If protons are not equal to electrons the atom is now known as an ion Cation = (+) and Anion = (-)
Chemical Bonds Remember how to bond various atoms with other atoms???? The bonding capability is based on the Group Number found at the top of each of the columns on the periodic table REVIEW the charges associated with each group. Remember that the 8 th group is the most STABLE
Chemical Bonds (continued) Three types of chemical bonds: –Ionic bonds: between ions –Covalent bonds: shared electrons –Hydrogen bonds: between two molecules
Inorganic Compounds Nutrients: essential elements and molecules normally obtained through diet Metabolites: all molecules that can be processed and broken down by chemical reactions in our bodies –Organic compounds: C and H form basis –Inorganic compounds: Usually do NOT contain C and H atoms as primary structure Most important in body: –Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) –Oxygen (O 2 ) –Water (H 2 O) –Inorganic acids, bases and salts
Inorganic Compounds (continued) Water accounts for most of your body weight. Proteins, the key structural and functional components of cells, and nucleic acids, which control cell structure and function, work only in solution with the UNIVERSAL Solvent known as Dihydrogen oxide (water).
Hydrogen ions (H+) = “Chemical Bad Boy” –Highly reactive Break chemical bonds Change shape of complex molecules Disrupt cell and tissue functions –Must be regulated precisely pH: concentration of H+ ions in body fluids pH Scale: 0-14 –Neutral: solution with pH of 7 –Acidic: solution with pH below 7 –Basic –Basic: solution with pH above 7 pH of pure water = 7 pH of blood = 7.35-7.45
Blood pH pH of blood = 7.35-7.45 QUICK QUIZ: So is blood neutral, acidic or basic? –Basic or otherwise known as ALKALINE! Large changes in pH of blood can be damaging to cells, tissues and functioning –Acidosis: low blood pH (below 7.35) Below 7 = coma –Alkalosis: high blood pH (above 7.45) Above 7.8 = uncontrollable, sustained skeletal muscle contractions
Acids, Bases and Buffers…oh my! Acid: “proton donor” –Solute that releases H+ ions in solution –Lowers pH of solution –Example: HCl – hydrochloric acid; in stomach to break down food Base: “proton acceptor” –Solute that removes H+ ions from solution –Example: NaOH – sodium hydroxide; Drano, lye Buffer: –Compounds that stabilize pH of a solution by removing or replacing H+ ions –Weak acids and bases –Help maintain pH of body fluids within normal limits –Example: Antacid (Alka-Seltzer) – NaHCO 3 (sodium bicarbonate, baking soda)
BIOCHEMISTRY Living things are mainly composed of four kinds of MACROMOLECULES: Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Carbohydrates and Lipids.
PROTEINS Structurally helps build certain areas of the body that need extra toughness or strength such as Keratin in nails and hair or cartilage. Chemical messengers to keep the brain in contact with the rest of the body.
NUCLEIC ACIDS Stores information and considered the body’s blueprint. Comes in two varieties, DNA or RNA
Carbohydrates Provide energy storage Simple carbs are known as monosaccharides or sugars Complex carbs are known as polysaccharides or starches Composed of Carbon and Water.
LIPIDS Long term storage otherwise known as fat Composed of fatty acids and glycerol Saturated fat= has single carbon bonding Unsaturated fat = has double bonded carbons