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1 Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
2 The Organism as a Unit of Life Cellular Structure (cell = unit of life)…one or many!Metabolism = Homeostasis (PSN, Resp, N2fix, ferment, etc.)Growth = irreversible change in sizeMovement…includes internal, limbs, locomotionReproduction…failure = extinctionAcclimatization-short term responses = behaviorAdaptation-long term responses = evolution
3 Biology is multidimensional EcosystemCommunityPopulationOrganismOrgan SystemOrganTissueCellThis array is an example of what dimension?Levels of OrganizationWhat fields of biology are at each extreme?Biophysics and BiochemistryIn this course our focus will be upon…The Organism!This level of organization is also…Hierarchial / Multidimensional!
4 Swedish Botanist, Physician, and Zoologist Carolus Linnaeus (aka Carl von Linné)Swedish Botanist, Physician, and ZoologistDeveloped a hierarchial classification scheme that we use to this day!
5 Taxonomy is also Hierarchial! The Organisms are Diverse: TaxonomyDomainBacteriaArchaeaEukaryaKingdomEubacteriaGram +Protista(Chromista)PlantaeFungiAnimaliaPhylumProteobacteriaEury-archaeotaPhaeophytaAnthophytaMagnolio-phytaBasidio-mycotaChordataClassGamma-proteobacteria--Phaeo-phyceaeDicoty-ledonaeHymeno-mycetesMammaliaOrderEntero-bacterialesHalo-bacterialesFucalesRosalesAgaricalesPrimatesFamilyEntero-bacteriaceaeHalo-bacteriaceaeFucaceaeRosaceaeAgaricaceaeHominidaeGenusEscherichiaHalo-bacteriumFucusRosaAgaricusHomoSpeciesE. coliH. salinarumF. distichusR. multifloraA. bisporusH. sapiensCommonDH5Halophytic archaeonRockweedWild RoseMushroomHuman
6 Not chimps, gorillas, etc. Figure 1-5 Page 7 of 3rd edition of your book (deleted from current edition)KINGDOMNot plants, fungi, etc.(Animalia)PHYLUMNot invertebrates(Chordata)CLASSNot birds, reptiles, etc.(Mammalia)ORDERNot bison, etc.(Primates)FAMILYNot lemurs, monkeys etc.(Hominidae)GENUSNot chimps, gorillas, etc.(Homo)SPECIESNot H. neanderthalensis, H. floresiensis, etc.(Homosapiens)
7 √ Homo sapiens There are many Homo sapiens in class. Learn your own Latin binomial.Our genus means “self” not gender identityOur epithet: we think that we think!Our epithet always ends in ‘s’:One Homo sapiens is the instructor.There are many Homo sapiens in class.Print in italics, underscore in manuscript.I am a Homo sapiens.√
8 How many organisms are there? Good Question! Let’s exclude extinct species!Many extant are unknown so we estimate!Bacteria: 10,000Archaea: 1,000Protista: 20,000(includes Stramenopila and Rhodophyta)Plantae: 285,000(mostly flowering)Fungi: 110,000Animalia: 1,400,000(mostly arthropods)
9 How many organisms are there? What is a species?Animal species concept…if offspring are fertile then same species…does not apply to species of other kingdoms:Prokaryotes (no sex)Allopolyploidy in plants
11 X X Fertile Hybrids! Coyote Canis latrans Wolf Canis lupus German Shepherd DogCanis familiarisXXCoydogWolfdogFertile Hybrids!
12 What is a Species? The Case of Bread Wheat AA (diploid wheat) x DD (diploid grass)Triticum urartuAegilops tauschiiAD (sterile diploid)similar to mule!colchicineor spontaneousAADD (fertile tetraploid)BB (diploid grass)Aegilops speltoidesBBAADDFertile hexaploidBread WheatTriticum aestivumcolchicineor spontaneousBAD (sterile triploid)Bread Wheat Created 7500 BC with spontaneous doubling of DNALevy A. A. and M. Feldman The impact of polyploidy on grass genome evolution. Plant Physiol. 130:
13 How many kingdoms are there? Good Question!The relationships among known organisms are not completely understood.Are you a lumper or a splitter?Newer information appears to back up the taxonomic decisions of splitters!Historical shifts from 2, to 3, to 4, to 5, to 6 and now to many more in just the last 40 years!
15 Descent with Modification Charles Darwin - British NaturalistFormal Studies: Medicine and TheologyDescent with Modification1880 The Power of Movement in Plants1871 Descent of Man1859 Origin of SpeciesSpecies evolved from generation to generation over timeHMS Beagle Voyage
16 Notice the very large number of extinctions! Darwin’s Tree of Life (1859) the only figure in: On the Origin of Speciesfuture timepresentThe Roman numerals each represent 1000 generationsmany moremany morepast timeThe letters A-L represent hypothetical progenitor species within a single genusNotice the very large number of extinctions!
17 DOMAIN BACTERIA DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN EUKARYA Question 14 Page 15before nucleustrue nucleusTurn back to the tree of life shown in Figure 1.5. Note that Bacteria andArchaea are prokaryotes, while Eukarya are eukaryotes. On the simplifiedtree below, draw an arrow that points to the branch where the structurecalled the nucleus originated. Explain your reasoning.DOMAINBACTERIADOMAINARCHAEADOMAINEUKARYA
18 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 5 3 First Eukaryote! Extinct 2 1 Multicellular AnimalsMyxozoansProtozoansTracheophytesBryophytesTrue FungiSlime MoldsRed algaeBrown AlgaeGreen AlgaeChrysophytesEuglenoidsArchezoansArchaeaBacteria853First Eukaryote!Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlyOriginal Cell
19 How Many Kingdoms? Extant 8 5 3 First Eukaryote! Extinct 2 1 Multicellular AnimalsMyxozoansProtozoansTracheophytesBryophytesTrue FungiSlime MoldsRed algaeBrown AlgaeGreen AlgaeChrysophytesEuglenoidsArchezoansArchaeaBacteria853First Eukaryote!Extinct21Long Time withProkaryotes onlyOriginal Cell
20 Here is a phylogeny that covers some of the animals:
21 Figure 1-9 Page 10 of 3rd Edition Plants, fungi, andanimals are smallbranch tips onthe tree of lifeThis node represents the commonancestor of archaea and eukaryotesThis node represents the commonancestor of all organisms alive today
22 In which direction is the axis of time shown? Page 7 Figure 1.5In spite of this graphic image, and the highlighted point on the lower right, your book, like most others, is organized as if there were only two kingdoms (Plantae and Animalia), as if nothing happened since Linnaeus!DOMAIN BACTERIAMycoplasmaHow is this graphic from your book the same, and how is it different from the other depictions of the “Tree of Life” you have seen so far?In which direction is the axis of time shown?The long list of organisms down the right are?FirmicutesCyanobacteriaActinobacteriaSpirochaetesChlamydiaeBacteriodetes-Proteobacteria-Proteobacteria-ProteobacteriaThis noderepresents thecommon ancestorof all organismsalive today-Proteobacteria-ProteobacteriaDOMAIN ARCHAEAThaumarchaeotaCrenarchaeotaKorarchaeotaThis noderepresents thecommon ancestorof archaea andeukaryotesEuryarchaeotaDOMAIN EUKARYASlime moldsFungiAnimalsChoanoflagellatesFungi,animals,and plantsare smallbranch tipson thetree of lifeEuglenidsParabasilidsThe three twigs highlighted on the tree are showing which level of modern Linnean taxonomy?DiplomonadsRed algaeGreen algaeLand plantsForaminiferansCiliatesDinoflagellatesApicomplexansWater moldsDiatomsBrown algae
23 David Hillis’ tree of life based on total genome sequences (at the time) EukaryotesArchaeonsHow many twigs would be on this diagram if ALL the extant organisms were shown??ProkaryotesTime Dimension?
24 Because this analysis is easier/faster, more species can be included! David Hillis’ tree of life based on rRNA sequence analysis (at press time)RhodophytaBecause this analysis is easier/faster, more species can be included!originStramenopila
25 Why did the five-kingdom system of classification fall out of favor? It was too complex—the original two-kingdom system of Linnaeus was more useful.Many organisms were difficult to classify because they had characteristics of more than one kingdom.There were too many prokaryotes to be included in a single kingdom.It did not reflect the actual evolutionary relationships among organisms very well.Answer: D
26 Summary Points for Taxonomic/Phylogenetic Classification Linnaean Classification is hierarchical: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, SpeciesOrganisms have names: Common names are redundant and multiple, Latin binomials are universal and almost uniqueSpecies of organisms have a recognized binomial: Genus name and specific epithetThere are more than a million species of organisms on our planet--most are arthropodsMany species on Earth are unknown or virtually unstudiedOrganisms are grouped into a few kingdomsThe number of kingdoms has increased over time on the planet, and in biology over time tooPhylogenic Cladistics relates organisms based on evolutionary pathways rather than on taxaAll organisms on this planet evolved from a single ancestor and so are a cladeMost of the recognized Kingdoms are close to natural groupings based on shared ancestryKingdom Protista needs further dissection to become a natural grouping
27 For Figuring Biological Data This Week! Bring your Biologist at Work Worksheet (completed?)Bring your Figuring Biological Data Worksheet (read!)Bring your Laptop with Excel installed…if you have oneBring your Flash Drive if you do not have a laptopDownload the Course Data file from the course website:To your Laptop with Excel…ORTo your Flash Drive