Presentation on theme: "Tide Variations Sun full moon new moon Earth"— Presentation transcript:
1 Tide Variations Sun full moon new moon Earth Spring tide: lunar and solar tides add together…so highs very high, lows very lowNeap tide: lunar and solar tides opposite, thus no additive effect…so highs close to lowsSunfirst quarter moonthird quarter moonEarthNote: tides exaggerated!distance to sun underestimated!diagram not to scale!
2 Exaggerating DepthsThe thickness of this black line is 2 times the depth of the Mariana Trench and would also easily contain Mount Everest…more than all of the surface relief of the Earth!Earth Diameter: 12,756 kmMount Everest: kmAverage Ocean Depth: Pacific kmAtlantic 3.926Indian 3.963Arctic 1.205In fact, the black line would encompass both the depth of the Mariana Trench and also the Troposphere above it!Maximum Ocean Depth: Pacific kmAtlantic 9.219Indian 7.455Arctic 5.625Atmosphere: 75% found inTroposphere kmMoon3, 478 kmLine Thickness: kmdistance from Earth: 103 moon diameters!
3 Tidal Zones Littoral Zone Supralittoral Zone Infralittoral Zone Splash Supralittoral FringeExtreme High WaterExtremes at Spring TidesMean High WaterLittoral ZoneMidlittoral ZoneBecause San Salvador is located near the equator, the Littoral Zone may be quite thin, so wave height may be more important to organisms in the Littoral and Supralittoral FringeMean Low WaterInfralittoral FringeExtreme Low WaterInfralittoral ZoneLimestone Marine Rock or Sloped Sandy Bottom
4 Tide Table May-June 2005 spring neap This tide table is provided from irbs.com/tides/calendar/month/4962.html?y=2005&m=5&d=22San Salvador (Watling Island), Bahamas 24.05° N, 74.55° WAll tides in ft relative to an index level…All times are EDTTide Table May-June 2005SundayMondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturday22231:59A L 0.776:12A Sunrise7:58A H 3.081:46P L 0.757:37P Sunset8:18P H 3.82Full Moon242:48A L 0.716:11A Sunrise8:46A H 3.092:34P L 0.707:38P Sunset9:06P H 3.84253:37A L 0.699:36A H 3.093:25P L 0.689:57P H 3.80264:28A L 0.7110:28A H 3.064:18P L 0.717:39P Sunset10:51P H 3.70275:21A L 0.7511:24A H 3.045:16P L 0.7811:49P H 3.55286:10A Sunrise6:16A L 0.8012:25P H 3.046:19P L 0.877:40P Sunset2912:49A H 3.387:13A L 0.841:29P H 3.067:28P L 0.94301:54A H 3.228:11A L 0.862:34P H 3.137:41P Sunset8:40P L 0.97Last Quarter312:59A H 3.089:09A L 0.863:37P H 3.249:50P L 0.9514:02A H 2.9910:04A L 0.854:37P H 3.367:42P Sunset10:56P L 0.9025:00A H 2.9310:56A L 0.845:31P H 3.4611:54P L 0.84342.312.382.402.352.2220.127.116.112.512.62Tidal Flux H-Lspringspring-neap=0.4 ft= 4.8 inneapComment: May-June Water Temperature 77-80°F = °CShallow near-shore water may be warmer!
5 Oceanic Island Ecology Ecology: study of organisms in environment
6 Where We Are… Oceanic Island Forms Provides Rich Habitat Diversity Has Climate and Environmental FactorsNow we need the Organisms!
9 Critical Thinking About This Video The theme was: the reef is green because of overfishing.Science decisions are based on objective evidence.What was the evidence for “greening”? Did you see green?What fish were you shown swimming on the reef?Dr. Booth has visited San Salvador over some 30 years… what did he tell you about groupers? what did he tell you about long-spined sea urchin numbers?What did you NOT see in this video that you should have seen if over-fishing were a problem?Are there other explanations for lack of herbivores?Are there other explanations for algal overgrowth?Are we fertilizing the algae?What else is in the fertilizer?The very contagious white pox coral disease is caused by Serratia marcescens found in human feces.Is the problem on San Salvador really overfishing or something more complex?
13 Trophic Calendar! Colonize and Establish Large Population Food Supply for EcosystemHabitats for OthersTimeProducerPhotosynthesisPopulation ofGeneralists1° ConsumerHerbivoreSmall Pop2° ConsumerCarnivore3° Consumer - Carnivorefeeding on Carnivores
14 The Forest Cross-Country Meet! This game is a cross-country race in a forestAll runners enter the forest by a single south entranceThe finish line is the northern boundary of the forestRunners need not exit at any particular place at the finishThere are many trails through the woodsTrails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forksTrails never join together or rejoin after forkingAlong the trail straightaways are check-in stationsAt each check-in station, a worker has a unique stampEach runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a stationRunners are not allowed to retrace a pathAll runners must finish the raceUsing the punch cards handed in at the finish line:Sketch the trail mapShow all station locations (on the straightaways)Mark the exit used by each runnerLiberally dapted from: David W. Goldsmith The great clade race: presenting cladistic thinking to biology majors and general science students. The American Biology Teacher 65:
15 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Bob Sue Deb Lou Jen Cal Hal Val x
16 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Bob Sue Deb Lou Jen Cal Hal Val Totalx852143
17 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edgeAll of the runners passed the circle station, so this station must be near the startStart
18 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Bob Sue Deb Lou Jen Cal Hal Val Totalx852143
19 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edgeFive of the runners passed the teardrop station, but three did not, so our 8 runners must have divided into two groupsBob, Deb, CalSue, Lou, Jen, Hal, ValStart
20 The Forest Meet Sharing our Results Bob Sue Deb Lou Jen Cal Hal Val Totalx852143
21 Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge The Forest MeetSharing our ResultsHalRunners can finish anywhere along this northern edgeBecause paths do not rejoin, Hal is separated and thus we can draw him at the finish lineFour runners of the group of five passed the diamond station, but Hal did not, so he split away before this stationSue, Lou, Jen, ValBob, Deb, CalSue, Lou, Jen, Hal, ValStart
22 The Forest Meet Bob Cal Deb Hal Jen Lou Sue Val Notice the runners are in alphabetical order. But this is not the only solutionAll branches can be rotated:e.g.: Lou before JenSue-Val before Jen-LouStart
23 Congratulations! Translating the Forest Meet to Evolution on an Island The forest represents the time-space continuum on the islandTime is shown by the runners moving from south to northThe entrance represents an arrival of a pioneer colonizer on-islandThe north finish line represents the present timeThe names at the finish line represent extant organisms on-islandThe meet cards represent the phenotypes of extant organismsThe stamp marks are the genotype changes leading to phenotypeThe branching trails show adaptive radiation (speciation) pathwaysThe shared marks are the synapomorphies (shared derived traits) you used to determine the evolutionary pathwaysYou carried out a cladistic analysis…intuitively very little help from me.Congratulations!
24 The Clade Race! This game is a cross-country race in a forest All runners enter the forest by a single south entranceThe finish line is the northern boundary of the forestRunners need not exit at any particular place at the finishThere are many trails through the woodsTrails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forksTrails never join together or rejoin after forkingAlong the trail straightaways are check-in stationsAt each check-in station, a worker has a unique stampEach runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a stationRunners are not allowed to retrace a pathAll runners must finish the raceUsing the punch cards handed in at the finish line:Sketch the trail mapShow all station locations (on the straightaways)Mark the exit used by each runner1. This game represents the evolution of some related organisms2. The organisms are believed to be a clade (w/common ancestor)3. The organisms we are using are all extant (none are fossils)4. We make no assumptions about possible phenotypes observed5. We make few assumptions about the evolution pathway• Cladogenesis divides one species into two species• We assume there is no convergent or parallel evolution6. Anagenesis is expected to occur between generations7. Evolution shows its record of changes in the genotype8. The record of evolution in genotype is shown in the phenotype9. Evolution is permanent; we assume no reversals of states10. In this study, we are using no fossils of extinct clade members11. Using the phenotypes observed in the extant organisms:• Sketch the cladogram• Show the location of character state transitions• Show the relationships among the taxa
25 How do you DO cladistics? Look at a group of organisms that you think are relatedFind a not-too-distantly related (primitive?) out-groupSelect characters that will help to distinguish the organismsPolarize the character states by:Stratigraphic sequence (fossil sequence)Developmental sequence (ontogeny recaps phylogeny)Outgroup comparisonBuild a data matrixGroup by number of synapomorphies (shared derived)Sketch possible cladogramsSeek simplest (most parsimonious) cladogram