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Presentation on theme: "A ROLE FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION"— Presentation transcript:

Dr Mark D White, Professor Gareth D Padfield Flight Science & Technology Research Group The University of Liverpool U.K. EE2006 Liverpool July 24th - 26th 2006

2 Challenges faced by Aerospace Engineering Degree Programmes
To produce capable graduates for the Aerospace Industry How? By providing an environment enabling the development of technical and inter-personal skills through challenging modules and exposure to active learning methods Learning environment should instil the desire for self-improvement, with modules developed along Conceive, Design, Implement and Operate (CDIO) guidelines Achieved in this case by the use of Flight Simulation

3 Key Components for Simulation Active Learning Environment
Hardware: Ranging from home built to full motion research facilities Software: From high fidelity modelling environments to games development packages Key ingredient: challenging problem based learning (PBL) modules

4 High Fidelity Simulation Environment - HELIFLIGHT
6-axis motion cueing 6 visual channels 4-axis dynamic control loading FLIGHTLAB modelling environment: selective fidelity, re-configurable flight models PilotStation – real time interface for piloted simulation Available for students to test new aircraft designs, modifications, control and display concepts Utilised in 4 u/g Aerospace Engineering modules

5 Low Cost Simulation Environments
X-Pit Simulator Uses X-Plane Software, Matlab/Simulink Developed “in-house” Fixed base, 2 Visual channels Networked to HELIFLIGHT Desktop Simulation Flybox or joystick to drive FLIGHTLAB, Matlab/Simulink models Accessible to a larger number of students Integrated readily into various degree modules

6 Simulation Modelling Software
AeroSim Blockset Cessna 172 Model FLIGHTLAB Matlab xPC Real-Time Target for closed-loop simulation of Simulink Aerospace models. The full Matlab ‘suite’ can be used to create aerospace Models. Matlab Virtual Reality Toolbox can aid with visualisation of concepts MATLAB GSCOPE component-level editor FLME- model editor develop models from higher level primitives selective fidelity Xanalysis nonlinear analysis linearisation, stability handling qualities control system design Complex systems can be designed and analysed offline and implemented quickly online allowing rapid prototyping of design solutions Generic rotorcraft model

7 Simulator Utilisation
Undergraduate teaching and research and schools activities account for ~ 1/3 of simulator utilisation Increased demand for simulator utilisation

8 Undergraduate Simulator Activities
Final Year Research Projects (Yr3 and 4) Flight Awareness (Yr1) Hands on experience of general aircraft handling, take-off, circuits, approach & landing, stall, spin Rotorcraft Flight (Yr3) Vertical and roll axis response of UH-60 helicopter, lab class with test pilot Flight Control Systems (Yr3) Design state feedback controller and proportional feedback controller for an unstable aircraft, evaluated in HELIFLIGHT by students “flying” their designs Simulator environment provides “vehicle” for knowledge acquisition Flight Handling Qualities (Yr4) Problem Based Learning Module HEADSTART Yr 12 Schools Activity

9 Flight Handling Qualities (FHQ) – A Problem Based Learning Module
Goal is to identify HQ deficiencies and fix them Teams working on different aircraft with different role ‘interactive’ lectures on HQ theory and practice pbl surgeries personal learning journal, Knowledge & Skills, Intellectual abilities, practical & transferable skills Technical leaflets, meeting notes team building exercises ‘before and after’ simulation trials with visiting test pilots team report and presentations to ‘customer’ group (QinetiQ staff) Brings together material from a large numbers of modules taken over the 4 years Module Research Aircraft

10 FHQ Practical Example – Wright Flyer Stability
Need Stability, brainstorm solutions Select Idea Changes to wing Design Determine optimum section YES NO Success in Design? Implement Offline Use software to see if stability is improved SUCCESS! (stable) NO Improved? YES Implement on Simulator FAILURE (aircraft cannot pull out of turn)

11 FHQ Practical Example – Wright Flyer Stability
Need Stability, brainstorm solutions Select Idea Changes to wing Design Determine optimum section YES NO Success in Design? Implement Offline Use software to see if stability is improved SUCCESS! (stable) NO Improved? YES Implement on Simulator FAILURE (unstable)

12 CDIO vs. Conventional Module
More engaging Increased responsibility In touch with reality Student feedback Visible end product Increased feedback Increased skills development

13 Allows students to engage with “real-world” problems
Undergraduate Research – Building on Industrially Relevant Projects (below) Allows students to engage with “real-world” problems Modelling & Simulation Simulation & modelling of fixed and rotary wing aircraft flight dynamics Simulation fidelity; development of criteria and validation methods for rotary wing aircraft Helicopter interactions with turbulent wakes, vortex wakes of fixed wing aircraft and ship airwakes Flight envelope expansion of rotary wing aircraft through modelling and simulation  Aircraft HQ and Flight Control Robust / H-infinity optimal control theory Helicopter control and handling qualities research, including control problems with underslung loads, handling qualities in degraded conditions and structural load alleviation concepts Advanced Configurations Handling qualities and control of tilt rotor aircraft – development of handling qualities criteria, flight control systems, control laws and structural load alleviation issues Aircraft-pilot couplings and pilot in the loop oscillations; criteria and design solutions Visual Perception and Displays Design of vision aids for fixed wing and rotary wing flight in degraded visual environments Pilot-vehicle interface technologies Rotary Wing Tail rotor failures - control concepts, Simulating Helicopter Engine Off Landings, Helicopters in Steep Descent, Encounters with fixed-wing aircraft vortices, Puma helicopter development, Fairey Rotodyne Display Systems & Visual Perception Investigation into How Peripheral Vision Affects Situation Awareness in Flight, Visual perception in fixed wing/rotary wing approaches Fixed Wing Model development: Grob, B747, Space Shuttle, Bristol Boxkite, X-29 Jetstream, Centaur Seaplane Tilt-rotor Pitch/Flight Path Handling Qualities of Tilt Rotor Aircraft, High Altitude Assessment of Dutch Roll Stability, Actuator Failure Analysis with Turbulent Encounters, Lateral Handling Qualities of the XV-15 Tilt-rotor Simulation Fidelity Adaptive Pilot Model For Simulation Fidelity Assessment – Yaw Axis Manoeuvres, Evaluation of Low Cost Flight Simulator – Fixed and Rotary Wing

14 Schools Activities - HEADSTART
PBL modules can be readily adapted for schools activities HEADSTART: Part of the Royal Academy of Engineering’s Best Programme Summer school for Year 12 students Aims: Demonstrate what science and engineering is about To experience undergraduate life prior to applying to UCAS Insight into future careers Aerospace Focus Programme at Liverpool based on Wright 1903 Flyer simulations

15 HEADSTART - Programme Handling Qualities Improvements to Wright 1903 Flyer 40 students working in teams Laboratory exercises Wind tunnel testing Simulation & Modelling Control Simulator Sessions Test pilot for evaluation of initial and upgraded model Design of Mission Task Elements Modelling & implementation Presentation To other students and members of Academic staff Analysis of deficiencies Effect of modifications

16 HEADSTART – Results Sometimes all does not go to plan……..
..but debriefing with a Test Pilot gives students the opportunity to re-evaluate their work and learn from their mistakes

17 HEADSTART – Results Handling Qualities deficiencies identified
Winglets Canard moved Handling Qualities deficiencies identified Modifications improved Handling Qualities Ratings By course end, students tackled problems they did not think they were are able to do at the beginning of the course 88% of students indicated Headstart confirmed their choice for studying Engineering at University 90% of students would include UoL as a UCAS choice Engine Moved

18 Summary & Future Developments
Students find the PBL experience more engaging than “traditional” modules and allows them to develop more both intellectually and personally Modules can be readily adapted for different audiences Number of undergraduate modules with PBL & flight simulation content will continue to grow Development of new PBL modules Expand and enhance current simulation facilities Consolidation of knowledge acquisition from a wider range of modules


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