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Stimulants “Chemical Uppers”.

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Presentation on theme: "Stimulants “Chemical Uppers”."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stimulants “Chemical Uppers”

2 Pharmacology Administration Action Ingestion Injection Inhalation
Causes release of excitatory neurotransmitter – norepinephrine, dopamine, adrenaline Prevents release of inhibitory neurotransmitter - adenosine

3 Physiological Effects
Increase CNS activity – alertness Increase concentration Increase heart rate Increase blood pressure Increase metabolism Decrease appetite Euphoria

4 Psychological Effects
Decrease perception of fatigue Feel stronger, more decisive, & more self-possessed Feelings of paranoia, hallucinations, moodswings, anxiety, and irritability possible

5 Cocaine Natural stimulant; made from coca leaves
Only medical use is throat or nasal surgery Purity? Administration / Effects “Snorted” – onset in 3-5 min, lasts min. Intravenous administration – lasts 10 min. Adverse effects Irregular heart beat “Crack” – form of cocaine; formed into crystals then smoked; effects seen in seconds

6 Amphetamines Medical uses
Narcolepsy Hyperactivity Appetite suppressant Recreational uses – mood altering effects (“pep”) Athletic uses Increase blood flow to muscles Decrease sense of fatigue Improve reaction time Go beyond normal physiological limit Increase time of productive work

7 Xanthines Blocks inhibitory neurotransmitter Caffeine – Theophylline
Most common stimulant; many consider it harmless of the xanthines has greatest stimulant effects Theophylline Found in tea Used as active ingredient in some OTC bronchodilators Theobromine Small stimulant effect Found in Chocolate

8 Physiological Effects of Caffeine
Increase metabolism Increase blood pressure Increase heart rate Decrease appetite Increased alertness, decrease fatigue Vasoconstriction in the brain Diuresis Increase stomach acid release

9 Other Effects of Caffeine
Withdrawal symptoms Caffeine & Diseases Ergogenic effects? IOC - 12µg/ml NCAA - 15µg/ml

10 Ephedrine From Ephedra shrub
Found in many natural health products – Ma Huang & OTC products – asthma, weight loss FDA approval for asthma and decongestant Substitute for MDMA (“ecstasy”)

11 Effects of Ephedrine Physiological effects Side effects
Broncholilator, increase heart rate, increase blood pressure Side effects Dizziness, irritability, anxiety Adverse effects Stroke, heart attack, seizures, liver failure, insomnia, risk increases if used with caffeine Banned by IOC & NCAA

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