Presentation on theme: "Behavioralism Psychological perspective that emphasizing the role of learning and experience in determining behavior. A strict behavioralist believes that."— Presentation transcript:
1 BehavioralismPsychological perspective that emphasizing the role of learning and experience in determining behavior. A strict behavioralist believes that babies are tabula rasa and the study of psychology should focus purely on observable behaviors and not unobservable thoughts.
2 Learning1)Behaviorists:relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience2) Cognitive:learning is made evident by behavioral change, but learning is defined as an internal and not directly observable process.
3 Associative learning – learning that certain events occur together Classical conditioning – An INVOLUNTARY behavior is determined by what PRECEDES itOperant conditioning – rewards and punishment; A VOLUNTARY behavior is determined by the anticipation of something that FOLLOWS it.
4 Which is which?1. A child is attacked by a dog. The child now fears all dogs.2. You do your homework every night to get good grades and avoid punishment.Classical – involuntary, stimulus precedes behaviorOperant – voluntary, stimulus follows behavior
5 Ivan Pavlov’s Experiments Pavlov paired a neutral stimulus (a bell) with a meat powder (which made the dog salivate).Eventually, dog salivates to bell alone
6 Identifying Parts Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Meat powder Unconditioned Response (UCR)SalivationConditioned Stimulus (CS)BellConditioned Response (CR)* Hint: replace “conditioned” with “learned” to make it more intuitive.
7 Little Albert John Watson – famous behavioralist Little Albert – 11 month old orphanShowed him a white rat. No fear.Made a loud noise. Albert cried.Showed him a white rat and made a loud noise. Albert cried. Repeated several times.Eventually Albert cried at white rat alone.
8 Identify the parts Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Loud noise Unconditioned Response (UCR)Fear/cryingConditioned Stimulus (CS)White ratConditioned Response (CR)
9 DefinitionsAcquisition – initial learning of the stimulus-response relationship (learning that bell means meat powder)Extinction – diminished response to the conditioned stimulus when it is no longer coupled with UCS. (stop giving meat powder with bell and dog will stop salivating to bell)Spontaneous recovery – reappearance of an extinguished CR after a rest.Generalization – the tendency to respond to any stimuli similar to the CS (Dog salivates to other noises)Discrimination – the ability to distinguish between the CS and similar stimuli (Dog only salivates to specific tone)
10 Application to Little Albert If Little Albert generalized, what would we expect to happen?He might cry at the sight of similar objects (he did – rabbit, dog, sealskin coat, some rumors – Santa’s beard)How could we teach Little Albert to discriminate?Continually expose him to stimuli similar to the rat, but only make the loud noise when exposing him to the ratHow could Little Albert’s conditioning be extinguished?Continually expose him to a white rat without making the loud noise (unfortunately, this was never done because Little Albert was adopted soon after the original experiments (he would be 83 now if he is still alive – probably scared of rats!)If Little Albert is still alive, his fear of white rats is likely to have been extinguished (no loud noise when he sees a rat). However, occasionally, when he sees a rat, he may find that his heart races for a second or two. What is this called?Spontaneous recovery
11 Higher-Order Conditioning A previously neutral stimulus comes to serve as a CS after being paired repeatedly with a stimulus that has already become the CSEx: lightbellsalivateTV showcar in drivewaysqueal of happiness
12 FloodingFear-evoking reduction technique in which the fear-evoking stimuli (CS) are presented continuously in the absence of harm so that fear responses (CR) are extinguishedEx: Little Albert-presenting rat without the banging noise until the fear is no longer evokedCan be unpleasant
13 Systematic Desensitization Client is exposed gradually to fear-evoking stimuli under circumstances in which he or she is relaxedEx: when Little Albert is relaxed, show him pictures of rats before gradually bringing them over
14 CounterconditioningA pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fear-evoking object, in this way counteracting the fear responseEx: Joneses experiment with 2 year old Peter.Placed rabbit in corner of room while Peter munched on cookies. Gradually, the animal was brought closer. Peter ate treats and touched the rabbit at the same time
15 On your ownWith your partner, practice with the terms by completing the worksheet.
16 A friend has learned to associate the sound of a dentist’s drill to a fearful reaction because of a painful experience she had getting a root canal. In this example, what is the:UCS? Pain from the drillUCR? FearCS? Sound of the drillCR? Fear
17 Generalization: the child becomes fearful of the sound of any motor Using the example in question 4, give an example of how each of the following may occur:Extinction: if the pain does not result when the drill is used, the CS (fear) will diminish.Spontaneous recovery: the child returns for a visit the next day and the sound of the drill elicits fear again.Generalization: the child becomes fearful of the sound of any motorDiscrimination: the child learns that only the high pitched dentist drill is associated with pain and not a low pitch hum of the vacuum cleaner.
18 UCS? Pretty people UCR? Feeling good CS? Sight of BMW CR? Feeling good A BMW commercial has lots of pretty people in it. People who watch the commercial find the people pleasing to look at. With repeated viewing, they begin to associate the car with the pleasant feeling.UCS? Pretty peopleUCR? Feeling goodCS? Sight of BMWCR? Feeling good
19 You get in a car accident and find you are afraid to get in a car. UCS? Pain of the accidentUCR? FearCS? Presence of carCR? Fear
20 UCS? Stomach virus UCR? Feeling sick CS? Sight of snails You go to a fancy restaurant and decide to try an appetizer you’ve never tried before – escargot. After dinner, you go to a concert and get violently ill (from a stomach virus that’s been going around). From then on, you can’t even look at snails without feeling sick.UCS? Stomach virusUCR? Feeling sickCS? Sight of snailsCR? Feeling sick
21 UCS? Getting in trouble from parents UCR? Increased heart rate You are cruising on 440 at 75 mph when you see flashing police lights behind you. You pull over and the policeman gives you a ticket. You get in insane amounts of trouble from your parents. The next time you see flashing police lights, your heart rate speeds up.UCS? Getting in trouble from parentsUCR? Increased heart rateCS? Flashing lightsCR? Increased heart rate
22 Name one practical application of classical conditioning. Stop drug or alcohol addiction by pairing a nausea-producing drug with the drug of addiction.Extinguish a drug addiction by administering a drug that blocks the pleasant feeling normally elicited by the drug.If a child is afraid of rabbits because one bit him when he was young, you can expose the child to rabbits in safe environments repeatedly until the behavior is extinguished
23 Cancer patients and chemotherapy. Cancer patients tend to associate the nausea produced by chemotherapy with the hospital setting.UCS – chemotherapyUCR – nauseaCS – hospitalCR – nausea
24 Cognitive ProcessesIt was once thought that cognitive processes weren’t involved in classical conditioning. Now we know better. For example, therapists give alcoholics drink containing a nausea-producing drug to condition them to avoid alcohol. Because clients KNOW that the drug is what is actually causing the nausea, it doesn’t work so well.
25 Biological Predispositions It was once believed that conditioning occurred the same in all animals (and therefore you could study human behavior by studying any animal) and that you could associate any neutral stimulus with a response. Not so. Animals have biological predispositions to associating certain stimuli over othersExample – You eat a novel food and later get sick. You will be conditioned to associate the taste of the FOOD with getting sick (and thus avoid that food in the future), but NOT the music playing in the restaurant, the plate it was served on, or the perfume your neighbor was wearing.It is much easier to condition someone to have a fear of snake than of flowers.Birds hunt by sight and will more quickly become conditioned to the SIGHT of tainted food
26 Rewards and punishment Operant ConditioningRewards and punishment
27 Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical ConditioningOperant ConditioningBehavior is determined by what PRECEDES it.Behavior is determined by anticipation of what FOLLOWS it.InvoluntaryVoluntaryDog salivates after a tone.Dog sits in anticipation of getting a treat.
28 Operant ConditioningA simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior because it is reinforced.
29 Classical or Operant?When a mother strokes her infant’s skin, the stroking creates pleasure responses in the baby. After this goes on for many days, the baby begins to show pleasure responses simply at the sight of her mother (even before being touched).
30 Classical or Operant?A patient in a mental hospital is very disruptive at mealtimes. She grabs food from the plates of those sitting near her and tries to cram the food in her mouth. Because this behavior of stealing food is very undesirable, a plan is developed whereby every time the patient steals food from other plates, she is immediately taken to a room without food.
31 Classical or Operant?Imagine you have a friend who keeps the temperature in her home so high that each occasion on which you visit her you find yourself perspiring. The last time you visited her, you noticed that you began to perspire and became uncomfortable as soon as you saw her house (even before you got inside).
32 Classical or Operant?Fred leaves his clothes and toys all over his room. It seems that the only time he cleans up his room is when his mother yells at him. When she yells at him, Fred picks up his clothes and put away his toys.
33 Edward L. ThorndikeCats in a box-trial and errorAs trials were repeated, it would take less time for the cat to pull the stringLaw of Effect: responses are “stamped in” by rewards (escaping from box and eating) and “stamped out” by punishments.
34 B.F. SkinnerReinforce: to follow a response with a stimulus that increases the frequency of the responseOperant behavior: an organism learns to do something because of its effects or consequences
35 “Skinner Box” Hungry rats in a cage Sniffed around the cage and engaged in random behaviorRat’s first pressing of lever is by accident-food pellet dropped in cageFood pellet increased the probability that the rat would press lever againPellet serves as a reinforcement for the lever pressing
36 Reinforcement vs. Punishment Practice with partner.
37 Types of ReinforcersPositive: a reinforcer that when presented increases the frequency of the operant (pellet, approval, praise)Negative: a reinforcer that when removed increases the frequency of an operant (removal of fear and pain)
38 Types of Reinforcers (food, water, warmth) Primary-an unlearned reinforcer that are effective because of the biological makeup of the organism(food, water, warmth)Secondary- a stimulus that gains reinforcement value through association with established reinforcers(money, attention, social approval)
39 Positive Reinforcer Studying Positive reinforcer Behavior Consequence Change in BehaviorStudying Positive reinforcer (Teacher approval) frequency of is presented behavior increases-when student ( student studies more)studies
40 Negative Reinforcer Studying Negative reinforcer Behavior Consequence Change in BehaviorStudying Negative reinforcer (Teacher disapproval) frequency of is removed behavior increases-when student ( student studies more)studies
41 Rewards and Punishments Reward: a pleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows
42 Rewards and Punishments Punishments: an unpleasant stimulus that suppresses the behavior it follows-although it works it is usually undesirable-better to focus on rewarding behavior
43 Negative Reinforcer Studying Negative reinforcer Behavior Consequence Change in BehaviorStudying Negative reinforcer (Teacher disapproval) frequency of is removed behavior increases-when student ( student studies more)studies
44 Punishment Talking in Punishment Behavior Consequence Change in BehaviorTalking in Punishment class (detention) frequency of is presented behavior decreases-when student ( student talks less intalks in class class)
45 Problems with Punishment it models aggression as a way to solve problemsbreeds anger in the recipientdoesn’t provide an alternative behavior. Therefore, the behavior only goes away when the punisher is around.
47 Reinforcement Schedules continuous – rewarded every timepartial – not every time“fixed” – set, constant“variable” – unpredictable“interval” – time“ratio” – number
48 Reinforcement Schedules fixed ratio – set number (every three times you raise your hand I call on you)variable ratio – unpredictable number of responses (slot machine)fixed interval – set amount of time (pay you every hour)variable interval – unpredictable amount of time (fishing)
49 Reinforcement Schedules SummaryRatio schedules cause a greater response rateVariable schedules are more resistant to extinctionContinuous reinforcement causes the fastest learning.Immediate reinforcement is more effective than delayed.
50 ShapingA procedure for teaching complex behaviors that at first reinforces approximation of the target behavior (smiling and saying good)Ex: driving stick shift car-first reinforce and say good when they shift without stalling
51 Token EconomiesAn environmental setting that fosters desired behavior by reinforcing it with tokens (secondary reinforcers)Ex: giving tickets for good behavior and using the tickets to buy goodiesStar stickers for reading: more stars allows you free time or buy more books etc.
52 Overjustification Effect Overjustification effect: when we are rewarded for behaviors that we naturally enjoy, we sometimes lose our intrinsic motivation.Learning and grades?Professional athletes?
53 Criticisms of Behavioralism Deemphasizes the role of internal thoughts and feelings in behavior; Presents humans as lacking free willIgnores biological predispositions
54 Support for Criticisms 1. Experiments with humans and animals both indicate that biological predispositions influence conditioning.a. Animal trainingb. fear of snakes more than flowers
55 Support for Criticisms 2. Cognition seems to influence conditioning (alcoholics and nausea-producing drug).3. Learning occurs in the absence of rewards or punishments (this is called latent learning)- mice and cognitive maps
57 Observational Learning The acquisition of knowledge and skills through the observation of others (who are called models) rather than by means of direct experience.
58 Observational Learning May account for most human learningNot mechanically acquired through reinforcementWe can learn by observation without engaging in overt responses at allEx: observe parents cook, read, clean
59 Latent Learning hidden or concealed Latent: Tolman’s rats: Rats learned about mazes in which they roamed even when they were unrewarded for doing soRats would acquire a cognitive map of the mazeLearning remained hidden until they were motivated to follow the rapid routes for food goals
60 Modeling Models may be live, symbolic, or verbal instruction Behaviors learned:Academic skills: reading, problem-solvingAggression: doll experiment, media violenceMoral thinking: generosity, self-control, temptation resistance
61 Modeling Learn new behaviors and ways of responding Effects of modeling on Behavior:Learn new behaviors and ways of respondingReinforcement may facilitate or inhibit frequency of behaviorsIncreases similar behavior
62 Modeling Traits of Effective Models: Perceived as competent, successful, and high status individualsTypically exhibit “gender-appropriate” behaviorRelevant to observer’s situation