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Solutions Part I: The Solution Process
Solutions: Solute: Solvent
Types of Solutions
The solution process To dissolve a solute in a solvent, the intermolecular attractions between solute and solute must be strong enough to compete with solvent- solvent and solute- solute attractions.
Dissolving an ionic solid in water The ion-dipole attractions between the salt and the solvent must be strong enough to overcome the lattice energy
“Steps” of the solution process Step 1
“Steps” of the solution process Step 1 Step 2
“Steps” of the solution process Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Endothermic vs. exothermic?
Why do processes occur? Achieve a lower energy state Exothermic processes lead to lower enthalpy
Why do processes occur? More randomness Greater “entropy” Can more than compensate for increasing enthalpy
Did it dissolve, or did it react? Just because a substance “disappears” into a solvent doesn’t mean that the substance dissolved!
Dissolving vs. reaction Dissolving Physical change Can recover the original substance by evaporating the solvent
Dissolving vs. reaction Dissolving Physical change Can recover the original substance by evaporating the solvent Chemical change New substances form
Solutions saturated unsaturated
Will this substance dissolve?
“Like dissolves like” Non-polar substances tend to dissolve in non-polar solvents
“Like dissolves like” Non-polar substances tend to dissolve in non-polar solvents Polar substances tend to dissolve in polar solvents.
“Like dissolves like” It comes down to having similar intermolecular attractions.
Gases in solution Solubility depends on intermolecular attractions
Gases in solution Solubility depends on intermolecular attractions London forces As molar mass increases, dispersion forces are stronger
Henry’s Law The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly dependent on the gas pressure
Henry’s Law The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly dependent on the gas pressure Pressure really doesn’t affect solubility of solids and liquids
Henry’s Law S g = kP g
Solubility and temperature Usually, solubility of ionic solids increases with temperature
Gas solubility and temperature Solubility of gases typically decreases with increasing temperature
Entry Task: Nov 19th Monday
Solutions n Solution – a homogeneous mixture of pure substances n The SOLVENT is the medium in which the SOLUTES are dissolved. (The solvent is usually.
The Solution Process Chapter 13 Brown-LeMay. I. Solution Forces Solution = Solvent + Solute Attractions exist between A. solvent and solute B. solute.
Ch. 14: Mixtures & Solutions
Properties of Solutions
Solution Concentration Molarity(M): Moles solute/1L solution Molality (m): Moles solute/1kg solvent Mole fraction (X A ): Moles A* total moles solution.
Chapter 13 Solutions. Overview Solution Process energy changes, solution formation, chemical reactions Concentration mole fraction, molarity, molality,
AP Chemistry Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions. Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. In a solution, the solute.
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CHE 124: General Chemistry II
Solution Formation Learning Targets: What is solubility?
Metallic Solids Metals are not covalently bonded, but the attractions between atoms are too strong to be van der Waals forces In metals valence electrons.
Types of Bonding in Crystalline Solids. Physical Properties of Solutions Chapter 13.
© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc. How Does a Solution Form If an ionic salt is soluble in water, it is because the ion- dipole interactions are strong enough.
Properties of Solutions. Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly.
Solutions The Solution Process.
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