Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Intermolecular Forces Chapter 11.2 Pages 385-392.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Intermolecular Forces Chapter 11.2 Pages 385-392."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intermolecular Forces Chapter 11.2 Pages 385-392

2 Set-up the following chart in your notes Bonding Force Inter- or Intra- Molecular Attractive Force PropertiesBond Strength Examples 8 Rows

3 Forces of Attraction Intramolecular forces – forces of attraction that hold particles together. chemical bonds – ionic, covalent and metallic are intramolecular forces. covalent bonds hold the hydrogen and oxygen atoms together – intramolecular Intermolecular forces – forces of attraction between neighboring molecules. there is an attraction between one water molecule and another water molecule, which causes water to be a liquid at room temperature. Intermolecular forces are weaker than intramolecular forces

4 INTRAMOLECULAR FORCES  Are within a molecule itself such as:  Covalent bonds  Ionic bonds  Metallic bonds

5 Ionic bonds are solids at room temperature - very strong bonds. Metallic bonds - attractive forces between fixed positive ions and the moving valence electrons in a metal. + + + + + + + + + fixed positive ions moving valence electrons Metallic bonds are strong bonds which is why most metals are solids at room temperature. Covalent bonds form molecules. Molecules can be solids, liquids or gases at room temperature. Chemical Bonds

6 ORDER OF STRENGTH OF INTRAMOLECULAR FORCES  Metallic – strongest  Ionic  Covalent Network (difference in electronegativity is “0”)  Molecular  Polar  Non-Polar

7 Bonding in Solids Solid Particles Attraction Properties System Forces MolecularAtoms or (Covalent)Molecules Dispersion Dipole-Dipole Hydrogen Bond CovalentAtoms Network Covalent Bonds IonicIons Ionic Bonds MetallicMetal Atoms Metallic Bonding Soft, low m.p., poor electrical conductors Very hard, high m.p., poor conductors Hard & brittle, high m.p., poor conductors, nonvolatile Shiny, malleable, ductile, good conductors ice diamond NaCl Al

8 What are the intramolecular forces?  Choices to consider are metallic, ionic, covalent, or molecular crystals. 1. C2H6 __________ 2. Na2O ____________ 3. SiO2 ______________ 4. CO2 ______________ 5. N2O5 ____________ 6. NaNO3 ______________ 7. Al ________________ 8. C(diamond) _______ 9. SO2 ________________

9 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES  Are the forces between one molecule and another  Are weak forces compared to “bonding forces”  Involves the attraction of the electrons of one atom for the protons of another atom  Are called van der Waals forces

10 KINDS OF van der WAALS FORCES  dipole – ion (dissolving)  dipole – dipole  London dispersion forces (temporary dipole forces)  hydrogen bonding

11 Dipole – ion forces  Ionic compounds dissociate into cations and anions because water is a polar molecule and the negative end of the water molecule is attracted to the cation and the positive end of the water molecule is attracted to the anion.

12 Ion Dipole

13 Dipole-Dipole Forces  Electrostatic attraction between polar molecules δ -δ +δ - δ +

14 Polar molecules form a dipole (one end of the molecule has a partial positive charge and the other end of the molecule has a partial negative charge) because of difference in electronegativity. Cl HH H H H δ-δ- δ-δ- δ-δ- δ-δ- δ-δ- δ+δ+ δ+δ+ δ+δ+ The dipole-dipole force is the attraction that the δ+ end of one molecule has for the δ- end of a neighboring molecule. Dipole-dipole Forces

15 Dipole-Induced Dipole  A polar molecule forces a dipole in a nonpolar molecule.  “Likes dissolve likes” δ -δ + - +

16 Distribution of electrons is not always even. When electrons become unevenly distributed the one end of the atom becomes  - (the end with more electrons) and the other end becomes  +. Causing one atom to be attracted to another. ++ -- ++ -- Attractive force between the  + of one atom and the  - of a neighboring atom. This is a very weak intermolecular force. Dispersion

17 Dispersion (London) Forces  The random movement of electrons creates temporary dipoles in nonpolar molecules.  These movements occur in all molecules to some extent. + -

18 All of the noble gases are gases at room temperature, however, at extremely low temperatures and/or high pressure, they can be condensed. This indicates that there is some attraction between the particles. Dispersion forces - intermolecular force of attraction between induced or temporary dipoles. atom of neon with electron evenly distributed in the electron cloud. atom of neon with uneven distribution of electrons. London Dispersion Forces

19 + - Hydrogen Bonding  Dipole-Dipole attraction between hydrogen and a highly electronegative element such as F, O, or N. H + - F

20 Hydrogen bond is a dipole-dipole attraction that occurs between molecules containing a hydrogen atom bonded to N, O or F. The difference in electronegativity results in particularly strong dipole- dipole attraction. Water exhibits hydrogen bonding. A hydrogen bond is the strongest of all of the intermolecular forces, which is why water is a liquid at room temperature. Hydrogen Bonding

21 ORDER OF STRENGTH OF INTERMOLECULAR FORCES  hydrogen bonding – strongest  dipole – ion  dipole – dipole  London dispersion forces

22 Comparing Intermolecular Forces Yes No Yes No Interacting molecules or ions

23 Identify the Intermolecular Attraction Forces 1. H 2 Dispersion (London) 2. Ne London 3. C 2 H 4 Cl 2 Dipole-Dipole 4. HF Hydrogen ( Dipole- Dipole) 5.NF 3 Dipole-Dipole 6.C 6 H 6 London 7.HCl Dipole-Dipole

24 What intermolecular forces?  HCl  I2  CH3F  CH3OH  H2O  H2S  SiO2  SO2  Cu  Fe  Kr  CH3OH  CuO  NH3  CH4  HCl(g)  NaCl  SiC

25 Properties affected by intermolecular forces  Boiling point  Retention of volume and shape  Surface tension  Evaporation  Vapor pressure  Viscosity

26 Properties are affected by forces  Physical properties depend on these forces. The stronger the forces between the particles,  (a) The higher the melting point.  (b) The higher the boiling point.  (c) The lower the vapor pressure (partial pressure of vapor in equilibrium with liquid or solid in a closed container at a fixed temperature).  (d) The higher the viscosity (resistance to flow).  (e) The greater the surface tension (resistance to an increase in surface area).


28 Surface Tension

29 Vapor Pressure


Download ppt "Intermolecular Forces Chapter 11.2 Pages 385-392."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google