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Crux of the Matter Unit 4 Chapters 7 and 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Crux of the Matter Unit 4 Chapters 7 and 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crux of the Matter Unit 4 Chapters 7 and 8

2 Ionic Compounds A transfer of electrons creates a strong bond
Occurs between a metal and a nonmetal or a metal and a polyatomic ion- held together by electrostatic force Compounds form in the simplest whole number ratios Creates true ions- cation (+) and anion (-) All ionic compounds are polar and called a formula unit Alkali and alkaline metal compounds combined with halogens are called salts

3 Properties of Ionic Compounds
Compounds are solids at room temperature Crystalline solids (made of ions) 6 basic shapes High melting and boiling points – due to the lattice energy- smaller the ions involved the stronger the bonds Conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water- electrolytes

4 Properties Continued Many soluble in water ( the universal polar solvent) but not in nonpolar liquid The formation of ionic compounds is always exothermic

5 Criss Cross

6 Naming ionic compounds

7 Lewis Dot Diagrams of Ionic Compounds




11 Covalent Compounds Created from sharing electrons
Occurs between a nonmetal and a nonmetal or a nonmetal and a polyatomic ion Covalent compounds can either be polar or nonpolar Covalent compounds are called molecules Formulas are in whole number ratios, but do not need to be simplified There can be single, double and triple bonds Diatomic elements-OHNoHalogens

12 Properties of covalent compounds
Bonds have different lengths- the shorter the bond the more energy required to break it Triple bonds are stronger than double bonds, and double bonds are stronger than single bonds Compounds are usually gases or liquids, some however can be solids Low melting and boiling points than ionic compounds Poor electrical conductors in all phases Compounds are either polar or nonpolar- to dissolve, use the rule “like dissolves like”

13 A molecule’s shape

14 Lewis Dot Diagrams and Structural Diagrams

15 Total Pairs Electrons Shared Pairs Unshared Pairs General Shape 4 tetrahedral 3 1 pyramidal 2 bent linear trigonal planar

16 Determining a molecule’s shape

17 Hybridization

18 Determining the polarity of a molecule

19 Naming Molecules

20 Naming Acids

21 Resonance Structures occur when molecules can arrange themselves to form bonds in different areas yet still obey the octect rule.

22 Metallic Bonds occur because the metals’ nuclei becomes surrounded by a sea of electron
This gives metals their physical properties of malleability and ductility

23 Dipole bonds- created from equal but opposite charges
London dispersion forces-weak intermolecular forces that occur between nonpolar molecules and is caused by the movement of electrons Hydrogen Bonds-occur between hydrogen and a higher electronegative element (O,N, halogens)

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