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Employee Testing and Selection

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Presentation on theme: "Employee Testing and Selection"— Presentation transcript:

1 Employee Testing and Selection
Chater 6 Employee Testing and Selection

2 Why Careful Selection is Important
Organizational Performance Legal Obligations and Liability The Importance of Selecting the Right Employees Costs of Recruiting and Hiring

3 Avoiding Negligent Hiring Claims
Carefully scrutinize information on employment applications. Get written authorization for reference checks, and check references. Save all records and information about the applicant. Reject applicants for false statements or conviction records for offenses related to the job. Take immediate disciplinary action if problems arise.

4 Basic Testing Concepts
Reliability Consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with identical or equivalent tests. Are test results stable over time? Ways to estimate reliability Retest Estimate Same test to same people at different point in time Equivalent form estimate Administer a test and administer what believes to be an equivalent test. Internal comparison estimate Administer a test & statistically analyze the degree to which responses of items vary. Apparently repetitive questions on some questionnaire to check internal consistency. Validity Indicates whether a test is measuring what it is supposed to be measure. Does the test actually measure what it is intended to measure?

5 FIGURE 6–1 Sample Picture Card from Thematic Apperception Test
Source: Reprinted by permission of the publishers from Henry A. Murray, THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST, Plate 12F, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1943.

6 Types of Validity Test Validity Criterion Validity Content Validity
Face Validity

7 Steps in Test Validation
How to Validate a Test Steps in Test Validation 1 2 Analyze the Job: predictors and criteria 3 Choose the Tests: test battery or single test 4 Administer the Tests: concurrent or predictive validation 5 Relate Your Test Scores and Criteria: scores versus actual performance Cross-Validate and Revalidate: repeat Steps 3 and 4 with a different sample

8 TABLE 6–1 Testing Program Guidelines
Use tests as supplements. Validate the tests. Monitor your testing/selection program. Keep accurate records. Use a certified psychologist. Manage test conditions. Revalidate periodically.

9 Test Takers’ Individual Rights and Test Security
Under the APA’s standard for educational and psychological tests, test takers have the right: To privacy and information. To the confidentiality of test results. To informed consent regarding use of these results. To expect that only people qualified to interpret the scores will have access to them. To expect the test is fair to all.

10 Legal Privacy Issues Defamation Avoiding Employee Defamation Suits
Libeling or slandering of employees or former employees by an employer. Avoiding Employee Defamation Suits Train supervisors regarding the importance of employee confidentiality. Adopt a “need to know” policy. Disclose procedures impacting confidentially of information to employees.

11 Using Tests at Work Major Types of Tests Why Use Testing?
Basic skills tests Job skills tests Psychological tests Why Use Testing? Increased work demands = more testing Screen out bad or dishonest employees Reduce turnover by personality profiling

12 Computerized and Online Testing
Online tests Telephone prescreening Offline computer tests Online problem-solving tests

13 Types of Tests What Tests Measure Cognitive (Mental) Abilities
Achievement Motor and Physical Abilities Personality and Interests What Tests Measure

14 FIGURE 6–5 Type of Question Applicant Might Expect on a Test of Mechanical Comprehension(cognitive ability)

15 FIGURE 6–6 Sample Personality Test Items
Source: Elaine Pulakos, Selection Assessment Methods, SHRM Foundation, 2005, p. 9. Reprinted by permission of Society for Human Resource Management via Copyright Clearance Center.

16 Emotional Stability/ Neuroticism Openness to Experience
The “Big Five” Extraversion Emotional Stability/ Neuroticism Agreeableness Openness to Experience Conscientiousness

17 Work Samples and Simulations
Miniature Job Training and Evaluation Management Assessment Centers Video-Based Situational Testing Measuring Work Performance Directly

18 FIGURE 6–7 Example of a Work Sampling Question

19 Management Assessment Centers
2 to 3 days simulations. Typical tasks include: The in-basket Leaderless group discussion Management games Individual presentations Objective tests The interview

20 TABLE 6–2 Evaluation of Assessment Methods on Four Key Criteria
Validity Adverse Impact Costs (Develop/ Administer) Applicant Reactions Cognitive ability tests High High (against minorities) Low/low Somewhat favorable Job knowledge test More favorable Personality tests Low to moderate Low Less favorable Biographical data inventories Moderate Low to high for different types High/low Integrity tests Moderate to high Structured interviews High/high Physical fitness tests High (against females and older workers) Situational judgment tests Moderate (against minorities) Work samples Assessment centers Low to moderate, depending on exercise Physical ability tests Note: There was limited research evidence available on applicant reactions to situational judgment tests and physical ability tests. However, because these tests tend to appear very relevant to the job, it is likely that applicant reactions to them would be favorable. Source: Elaine Pulakos, Selection Assessment Methods, SHRM Foundation, 2005, p. 17. Reprinted by permission of Society for Human Resource Management via Copyright Clearance Center.

21 Background Investigations and Reference Checks
Investigations and Checks Reference checks Background employment checks Criminal records Driving records Credit checks Why? To verify factual information provided by applicants. To uncover damaging information.

22 Background Investigations and Reference Checks (cont’d)
Former Employers Current Supervisors Written References Social Networking Sites Commercial Credit Rating Companies Sources of Information

23 Limitations on Background Investigations and Reference Checks
Supervisor Reluctance Employer Guidelines Legal Issues: Privacy Legal Issues: Defamation

24 Making Background Checks More Useful(guidelines)
Include on the application form a statement for applicants to sign explicitly authorizing a background check. Use telephone references if possible. Be persistent in obtaining information. Use references provided by the candidate as a source for other references. Ask open-ended questions to elicit more information from references.

25 Using Preemployment Information Services
Acquisition and Use of Background Information 1 2 Disclosure to and authorization by applicant/employee 3 Employer certification to reporting agency 4 Providing copies of reports to applicant/employee Notice of adverse action to applicant/employee

26 TABLE 6–3 Collecting Background Information
Suggestions for collecting background information include the following: Check all applicable state laws. Review the impact of equal employment laws. Do not obtain information that you’re not going to use. Remember that using arrest information will be highly suspect. Use information that is specific and job related. Keep information confidential and up to date. Never authorize an unreasonable investigation. Always require applicants to fill out a job application. Compare the application to the résumé (people tend to be more imaginative on their résumés than on their application forms, where they must certify the information). Particularly for executive candidates, include background checks of such things as involvement in lawsuits, and of articles about the candidate in local or national newspapers. Separate the tasks of (1) hiring and (2) doing the background check (a recruiter or supervisor anxious to hire someone may cut corners when investigating the candidate’s background). Source: Adapted from Jeffrey M. Hahn, “Pre-Employment Services: Employers Beware?” Employee Relations Law Journal 17, no. 1 (Summer 1991), pp. 45–69; and Shari Caudron, “Who Are You Really Hiring?”, Workforce, 81, no. 12 (November 2002), pp. 28–32.

27 The Polygraph and Honesty Testing
Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 Generally prohibits polygraph examinations by all private employers unless: The employer has suffered an economic loss or injury. The employee in question had access to the property. There is a reasonable prior suspicion. The employee is told the details of the investigation, as well as questions to be asked on the polygraph test itself. Exceptions: Private security employees Nuclear power related employees Hiring personnel with access to drugs Employees with access to highly classified information National defense and security (FBI)

28 Honesty Testing Programs: What Employers Can Do
Ask blunt questions. Listen, rather than talk. Check all employment and personal references. Use paper-and-pencil honesty tests and psychological tests. Test for drugs. Establish a search-and-seizure policy and conduct searches.

29 FIGURE 6–9 Handwriting Exhibit Used by Graphologist
Source: Kathryn Sackhein, Handwriting Analysis and the Employee Selection Process (New York: Quorum Books, 1990), p. 45. Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

30 Physical Examination Reasons for preemployment medical examinations:
To verify that the applicant meets the physical requirements of the position. To discover any medical limitations to be taken into account in placing the applicant. To establish a record and baseline of the applicant’s health for future insurance or compensation claims. To reduce absenteeism and accidents. To detect communicable diseases that may be unknown to the applicant.

31 Substance Abuse Screening
Types of Screening Before formal hiring After a work accident Presence of obvious behavioral symptoms e.g. chronic lateness Random or periodic basis Transfer or promotion to new position Types of Tests Urinalysis Hair follicle testing

32 FIGURE 6–10 Procedure in Complying with Immigration Law
Hire only citizens and aliens lawfully authorized to work in the United States. Advise all new job applicants of your policy. Require all new employees to complete and sign the verification form (the “I-9 form”) designated by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to certify that they are eligible for employment. Examine documentation presented by new employees, record information about the documents on the verification form, and sign the form. Retain the form for three years or for one year past the employment of the individual, whichever is longer. If requested, present the form for inspection by INS or Department of Labor officers. No reporting is required.

33 Improving Productivity Through HRIS: Comprehensive Automated Applicant Tracking and Screening Systems “Knock out” applicants who do not meet job requirements Can match “hidden talents” of applicants to available openings Benefits of Applicant Tracking Systems Allow employers to extensively test and screen applicants online

34 FIGURE 6–11 Checklist: What to Look for in an Applicant Tracking System (ATS)
The employer thinking of adopting an ATS should seek one that meets several minimum functionality requirements. Among other things, the ATS should be: Easy to use. Capable of being integrated into the company’s existing HRIS platform, so that, for instance, data on a newly hired candidate can flow seamlessly into the HRIS payroll system. Able to capture, track, and report applicant EEO data. Able to provide employee selection performance metrics reports, including “time to fill,” “cost to hire,” and “applicant source statistics.” Able to facilitate scheduling and tracking of candidate interviews, communications, and completed forms, including job offers. Able to provide automated screening and ranking of candidates based upon job skill profiles. Able to provide an internal job posting service that supports applications from current employees and employee referral programs. Able to integrate the ATS job board with your company’s own Web site, for instance, by linking it to your site’s “careers” section. Able to provide for requisition creation and signoff approvals.

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