3 Pathogen Description Parasitic Roundworms Early juvenile and Male stages are vermiformExtreme Sexual DimorphismFemale nematode is pear-shaped with egg masses attached at maturity
4 Disease Symptomsabove ground: plants are stunted with some yellowing and severely affected plants may wilt- root system: galls are formed on primary and secondary roots; galls become large and are very obvious
6 Disease SymptomsRoot system heavily galled by root-knot nematode on the left and a health root system on the right.
7 Pathogen Description Sedentary endoparasite Males can be rare, reproduction by amphimixis and parthenogenesisLife cycle is 3 weeks to several months depending on environment, 4-5 cycles per growing season400 μm
8 Pathogen DescriptionUses its stylet to pierce cell walls to excrete enzymes for infection and feedingAfter feeding for a few days, females release eggs in gelatinous matrix
9 Southern Root Knot Nematode Not detectedDetectedDetected on soybeanStill counting
10 Host Crops in Illinois Row Crops Corn, Soybean, Wheat, Oats, Barley, Sunflower, Canola, Buckwheat, Pasture GrassesVegetable CropsAsparagus, Beans and Peas, Beet, Carrot, and Parsnip, Cole Crops (Broccoli, Cabbage, Collards, etc.), Cucurbit Crops (Cucumber, Melons, Pumpkin, Squash), Lettuce, Spinach, and Other Greens, Onions, Garlic, and Leeks, Potatoes, Sweet Corn, Sweet Potatoes, Tomatoes, Peppers, and EggplantFruit CropsApples, Blueberries, Brambles (Blackberries and Raspberries), Grapes, Peaches, StrawberriesVirtually all ornamental plants
11 Conditions for Disease Development: - the nematode has a wide host range; it can also survive as dormant eggs a few months.- warm temperatures and light sandy soils are conducive for development.
16 Disease: Bacterial Spot CROP: Pepper, tomato, and many other cropsPATHOGEN: Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (strain specific)DISTRIBUTION: Worldwide - ILPATHOGEN DESCRIPTION: Gram-negative rod
17 DISEASE SYMPTOMS Affects leaves, fruit, and stems On leaves lesions begin as small water-soaked spots that remain small and become necrotic with a chlorotic border. Lesions may be sunken on the upper surface and raised on the lower surface.On fruit raised, dark colored lesions are wart-like in appearanceOn stems and petioles lesions appear as elongated necrotic spots or streaksHeavily infected leaves turn yellow and drop resulting in severe defoliation
20 Conditions for Disease Development Bacterium is seedborne and can survive in infected crop debrisMany strains attack both tomato and pepper.Disease is enhanced by overhead water, heavy dew formation, and high temperatures.
21 Control Measures Use pathogen-free seed and disease-free transplants Crop rotationResistant cultivars are becoming available, but may not be resistant to all strainsCopper and copper + maneb sprays reduce damageRain shelters may reduce disease severity during heavy rainfall periods
22 Physiological Disorders BLOSSOM END ROT - Calcium deficiency and water imbalanceDISEASE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS:A water-soaked lesion develops on the fruit lobe near the blossom end. The lesion desiccates, turns tan or brown, and becomes leathery in appearance. Saprophytic fungi and soft rot bacteria may invade the lesions.
23 Symptoms and SignsBlossom end rotCaused by calcium deficiency
24 Disease SymptomsBlossom end rot is characterized by water-soaked areas that develop near the blossom end. The affected tissue desiccates, becoming brown and leathery. Affected pods may ripen prematurely. Secondary fungi and bacteria may colonize the dead tissue, causing it to turn dark and rot.Blossom end rot is caused by a calcium deficiency in developing fruit. It occurs in fields with low or moderate soil calcium levels. Fluctuating soil moisture due to overwatering or drought, high nitrogen fertilization, and root pruning during cultiv ation are conducive to blossom end rot.
25 Conditions for Disease Development Soils with low calcium levelsExcessive or deficient soil moisture and high temperaturesExcessive nitrogen levels and root damage by cultivation enhance blossom end rot development
26 Control MeasuresApplication of limestone to low pH soils and gypsum (calcium sulfate) to high pH soils with low calcium levels.Good water management and proper nitrogen applicationsAvoid cultivation near the plant that causes root damage
27 Sunscald - Fruit exposure to direct sunlight DISEASE SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS:Pod wall tissue looses turger and rapidly dehydrates forming a papery, bleached lesion on the side exposed to the sun. Discoloration may occur later as secondary organisms invade.CONDITIONS FOR DISEASE DEVELOPMENT:bright sun and exposure of fruit due to limb breakage by wind, cultivation, or harvest Mature green fruit are most susceptible.CONTROL MEASURES:- care in harvesting and cultivation not to damage the plants.- selection of cultivars with good foliage coverage.
28 Disease SymptomsSunscald-damaged Bell Pepper. Lesion colonized by saporophytic fungi (dark appearance)