1 The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes Adapted from Timberlake’s CheModules (www. Karentimberlake.com/chemodule.htm)

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1 The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes Adapted from Timberlake’s CheModules (www. Karentimberlake.com/chemodule.htm)

2 Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms bond in simple ratios to form compounds

3 Subatomic Particles ParticleSymbol Charge Relative Mass Electron e - 1- 0 Proton p + + 1 Neutron n0 1

4 Location of Subatomic Particles electrons protons neutrons nucleus

5 Atomic Number Counts the number of protons in an atom

6 Atomic Number on the Periodic Table 11 Na Atomic Number Symbol

7 All atoms of an element have the same number of protons 11 Na 11 protons Sodium

8 Learning Check AT 1 State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following: A. Nitrogen 1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14 protons B. Sulfur 1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons 3) 6 protons C. Barium 1) 137 protons 2) 81 protons 3) 56 protons

9 Number of Electrons An atom is neutral The net charge is zero Number of protons = Number of electrons Atomic number = Number of electrons

10 Mass Number Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom *Mass number is not on the periodic table

11 Atomic Symbols Show the mass number and atomic number Give the symbol of the element mass number 23 Na sodium-23 atomic number 11

12 More Atomic Symbols 163165 O P Zn 81530 8 p + 15 p + 30 p + 8 n16 n35 n 8 e - 15 e - 30 e -

13 Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different mass numbers Isotopes of chlorine 35 Cl 37 Cl17 chlorine - 35 chlorine - 37

14 Learning Check AT 2 Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms. 12 C 13 C 14 C 6 6 6 #P _______ _______ _______ #N _______ _______ _______ #E _______ _______ _______

15 Learning Check AT 3 An atom of zinc has a mass number of 65. A.Number of protons in the zinc atom 1) 302) 353) 65 B.Number of neutrons in the zinc atom 1) 302) 353) 65 C. What is the mass number of a zinc isotope with 37 neutrons? 1) 372) 653) 67

16 Learning Check AT 4 Write the atomic symbols for atoms with the following: A. 8 p +, 8 n, 8 e - ___________ B.17p +, 20n, 17e - ___________ C. 47p +, 60 n, 47 e - ___________

17 Learning Check AT 5 An atom has 14 protons and 20 neutrons. A.Its atomic number is 1) 142) 163) 34 B. Its mass number is 1) 142) 163) 34 C. The element is 1) Si2) Ca3) Se D.Another isotope of this element is 1) 34 X 2) 34 X 3) 36 X 16 14 14

18 Masses of Atoms A scale designed for atoms gives their small atomic masses in atomic mass units (amu) An atom of 12 C was assigned an exact mass of 12.00 amu Relative masses of all other atoms was determined by comparing each to the mass of 12 C An atom twice as heavy has a mass of 24.00 amu. An atom half as heavy is 6.00 amu.

19 Atomic Mass Sometimes listed as “atomic weight” Listed on the periodic table Gives the mass of “average” atom of each element compared to 12 C Average atom based on all the isotopes and their abundance % Atomic mass is not a whole number Na 22.99

20 Learning Check AT6 Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element (round to the tenths place): A.calcium__________ B. aluminum__________ C. lead__________ D. barium__________ E. iron__________

21 Calculating Average Atomic Mass You need to know… Percent(%) abundance of isotopes Mass of each isotope Weighted average = (mass of isotope 1)(% abundance/100) +(mass of isotope 2)(% abundance/100) + …

22 Atomic Mass of Magnesium Isotopes Mass of Isotope Abundance 24 Mg =24.0 amu 78.70% 25 Mg = 25.0 amu 10.13% 26 Mg = 26.0 amu 11.17% (.7870 x 24.0) + (.1013 x 25.0) + (.1117 x 26.0) Atomic mass (average mass) Mg = 24.3 amu Mg 24.3

23 Learning Check AT7 Gallium is a metallic element found in small lasers used in compact disc players. In a sample of gallium, there is 60.2% of gallium-69 (68.9 amu) atoms and 39.8% of gallium-71 (70.9 amu) atoms. What is the average atomic mass of gallium ?

24 Solution AT7 Ga-69 68.9 amu x 60.2 = 41.5 amu for 69 Ga 100 Ga-71 (%/100) 70.9 amu x 39.8 = 28.2 amu for 71 Ga 100 Atomic mass Ga = 69.7 amu