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Land Chapter 14.

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Presentation on theme: "Land Chapter 14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Land Chapter 14

2 14-1: How We Use Land

3 Land Use and Land Cover We use land for many purposes, including farming, mining, building cities and highways, and recreation.

4 Land Use and Land Cover Land cover is what you find on a patch of land, and it often depends on how the land is used. For example, land cover might be a forest, a field of grain, or a parking lot.

5 Land Use and Land Cover Urban – an area that contains a city, or an area that contains 2,500 or more people and usually has a governing body, such as a city council

6 Land Use and Land Cover Rural – an area of open land that is often used for farming, or any population not classified as urban

7 Where We Live Until about 1850, most people lived in rural areas.
Many of them were farmers, who grew crops and raised livestock. Others managed the forests, worked in local mines or mills, or manufactured the necessities of life for the town.

8 Where We Live The Industrial Revolution changed this pattern. Thousands of rural jobs were eliminated, and many people had to move to cities to find jobs. As a result, urban areas grew rapidly during the 20th century and spread over more land. Working conditions?

9 Where We Live Today, most people throughout the world live in urban areas.

10 The Urban-Rural Connection
Ecosystem service – the role that organisms play in creating a healthy environment for humans

11 14-2: Urban Land Use

12 Urbanization Urbanization – an increase in the ratio or density of people living in urban areas rather than in rural areas People usually leave rural areas for more plentiful and better paying jobs in towns and cities.

13 Urbanization As urban populations have grown, many small towns have grown together and formed large urban areas called metropolitan areas. An example would be Washington D.C.-Baltimore.

14 The Urban Crisis Infrastructure – the basic facilities of a country or region, such as roads, bridges, sewers, and railroads Urban crisis – When more people live in a city than its infrastructure can support, the living conditions deteriorate

15 Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl – the rapid spread of a city into adjoining suburbs and rural areas Suburbs – housing and associated commercial buildings on the boundary of a larger town

16 Urbanization Heat island – an area in which the air temperature is generally higher than the temperature of surrounding rural areas Heat is generated by the infrastructure that makes a city run. Roads and buildings absorb and retain heat longer than vegetation does.

17 Urbanization Scientists are beginning to see that heat islands can affect local weather patterns. Hot air rises over a city, cooling as it rises, and eventually produces rain clouds. In Atlanta, Georgia, and many other cities, increased rainfall is a side effect of the heat island effect.

18 Urban Planning Land-use planning – a set of policies and activities related to potential uses of land that is put in place before an area is developed

19 Urban Planning Mass transit systems use buses and trains to move many people at one time. Mass transit systems save energy, limit the loss of land to roadways and parking lots, reduce highway congestion, and reduce air pollution.

20 Urban Planning Open space – land within urban areas that is set aside for scenic and recreational enjoyment Open spaces include parks, public gardens, and bicycle and hiking trails. Open spaces, especially those with vegetation, reduce drainage problems by absorbing more of the rainwater runoff from building roofs resulting in less flooding

21 14-3: Land Management and Conservation

22 Farmlands Farmland is land that is used to grow crops and fruit.
The U.S. contains more than 247 million acres of prime farmland

23 Rangelands Rangeland – Land that supports different vegetation types like grasslands, shrublands, and deserts and that is not used for farming or timber production The most common human use of rangeland is for the grazing of livestock

24 Rangelands Overgrazing – the depletion of vegetation due to the continuous feeding of too many animals Once the plants are gone, there is nothing to keep the soil from eroding.

25 Rangelands Improving rangeland that has been degraded by overgrazing often includes methods such as: limiting herd size planting native vegetation fencing areas to let them recover to the state they were in before they were overgrazed

26 Forest Land The timber industry classifies forest lands into three categories: Virgin forests: forests that have never been cut. Native forests: forests that are planted and managed. Tree farms: areas where trees are planted in rows and harvested like other crops.

27 Forest Trees Two methods for harvesting trees:
Clear-cutting is the process of removing all of the trees from an area of land. Destroys wildlife habitat and causes soil erosion

28 Forest Trees Two methods for harvesting trees:
Selective cutting is the process of cutting and removing only middle-aged or mature trees. It is more expensive than clear-cutting, but is usually much less destructive

29 Forest Lands Deforestation – the process of clearing forests
Forests are cleared to convert the land into farmland, and to make space for roads, homes, factories, and office buildings

30 Forest Land Reforestation – the reestablishment and development of trees in a forest land

31 Parks and Preserves Congress agreed to protect land in Wyoming and Montana by setting it aside for the public to use and enjoy, and the first national park, Yellowstone, was created. Today, the U.S. has about 50 national parks.

32 Parks and Preserves

33 Parks and Preserves Wilderness – a region that is not cultivated and that is not inhabited by humans Wilderness areas serve as research labs where people can learn more about the natural world. These protected areas also provide recreation, such as hiking and camping

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