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Section 3: Spread of Islam

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Presentation on theme: "Section 3: Spread of Islam"— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 3: Spread of Islam

2 Intro Death of Muhammad in 632 meant Muslims faced a crisis
Political unity of the first Muslim empire was short-lived.

3 Geographic extent of first Muslim empire

4 Abu-bakr Muhammad – named no successor Elected 1st caliph-632 AD
Caliph– successor Promised to uphold what Muhammad stood for

5 Rightly Guided Caliphs
First four caliphs Used Koran and Muhammad’s actions as guides to leadership Their rule is known as Caliphate

6 Abu-Bakr Had promised Muslim community to uphold what Muhammad stood for Groups began to break away Used jihad (armed struggle) to control & expand Islam

7 Spread of Islam Abu-bakr – controlled all of Arabia
Umar – conquered Syria, Egypt, parts of Persia (Sassanid) 750 AD – Empire extended from Atlantic (Spain) to Indus valley


9 Success People believed successes due to Allah's support
Well disciplined and commanded armies Weakness of other empires Attracted by message of hope & equality

10 Conquests Muslim conquests of Jerusalem and Damascus
Trading rights in the Med. Access to conquer Europe and Africa.

11 Add Damascus to Map

12 Treatment of conquered peoples
Retained their own religion Paid tax instead of military service Could not spread religion

13 Internal conflict Uthman – murdered starting civil war
Ali – murdered leading to split in religion

14 Umayyads Muawiya-Governor of Syria Came to power after Ali’s death
Moved capital to Damascus Began division of Islam

15 Split Shi’a (Shiite) – “party” of Ali
should be descended from Muhammad Sunni – meaning follower’s of Muhammad's example Death of Ali led to Sunni-Shi’a division


17 Sufi Pursued life of poverty and devotion to spiritual path
Helped keep Muslims focused on Qur'an and traditions

18 Spain Umayyad established new dynasty in Spain and North Africa
after overthrow by Abbasids joined Berbers Also known as Moors

19 Berbers Muslims of north Africa Moors
Advanced Muslim armies into France but halted in 732 AD at Battle of tours by Charles Martel Muslim defeat at the battle of tours


21 Abbasid power Abbasids overthrew Umayyad dynasty in 750
Geography – old Persia, Iran, Iraq, & central Asia Islamic capital moved to Baghdad Bureaucracy conducted affairs of empire (day to day)

22 Abbasid Empire

23 Rival groups Abbasid caliphate lasts from 750-1258 Fatimid dynasty
resulted from growth of small Muslim states Connected to Abbasid by trade

24 Fatimid's Empire

25 Trade Network Sea - Mediterranean Sea & Indian ocean
Land-Connected Silk Road of China and India to Europe and Africa Arabic language spread with Islam and facilitated trade Single currency-Abbasid dinnar


27 Banks Set up by money changers to encourage trade
issued letters of credit (sakk)

28 Muslim cities Abbasid – Baghdad & Damascus
Cordoba – Umayyad capital in Spain Cairo – Fatimid capital Jerusalem Baghdad

29 Fall of Baghdad To the Mongols-1258 AD invaded Baghdad.
The city was sacked and burned Baghdad remained uninhabited for centuries

30 Social classes 1. Upper class – Muslims at birth
2. Second class – converts to Islam 3. Protected peoples – Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians 4. Lower classes-Slaves Slavery was not based on race. prisoners of war non-muslims

31 Role of women Men – managers of women's affairs, women are obedient
Equal as believers

32 Responsibilities of Women
Poor-worked in fields with husband Wealthy-supervised household & servants Rich or poor responsible for raising children

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