Presentation on theme: "Ancient Indian Religions and Philosophies Hinduism and Buddhism 10. What are the central teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient Indian Religions and Philosophies Hinduism and Buddhism 10. What are the central teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism
Hinduism Basics Hinduism is the world’s third largest religion. 16% of the world, or 900 million people are Hindu. It has no individual founder -- It is believed to be a combination of Indus Valley, Aryan and Dravidian beliefs. Elements of this religion date back 6,000 years.
Hindus believe the entire universe is seen as one divine entity [a God] who is simultaneously at one with the universe and who transcends it as well. This entity’s name is Brahman.
But most people have trouble with this concept. So Brahman has been divided into over 33,000 other gods.
The three most important gods: Vishnu, the Preserver Shiva, the destroyer Brahma, the creator
Hindu goal of life: To unite with Brahman and achieve moksha through the cycle of reincarnation, also known as samsara
To break the reincarnation cycle and achieve moksha you must: Do your dharma -- the duty assigned to you based on your age, gender, caste, etc. (literally means “righteousness”) Achieve good karma -- the accumulated sum of all your good and bad deeds. (think of it as credit for the next life) Be reborn as a higher and higher being. Achieve enlightenment.
To achieve enlightenment, you must Think pure thoughts Act wisely Treat all life with respect Practice ahimsa -- nonviolence
The Caste System: Four main castes Brahmins--the priests and academics Kshatriyas--rulers, military Vaishyas--farmers, landlords, and merchants Sudras--peasants, servants, and workers in non-polluting jobs.
…Plus the outcastes or “untouchables”-- the lowest of the low. They are responsible for the jobs that no one else can do, like preparing the dead, cleaning sewers, etc. No one else can touch them.
Main Hindu Texts The Vedas -- four texts of hymns and writings. The oldest is the Rig Veda The Upanishads -- a collection of dialogues between teacher and student about the nature of gods and the self Epics like the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Bhagavad Gita
Buddhism Basics Buddhists make up 6% of the world’s population or 350 million people. It was founded by Siddhartha Gautama who later became “The Buddha” or “Enlightened One.” Some people consider it a religion and some consider it a philosophy.
The Middle Way “If you tighten the string too much, it will snap. If you leave it too slack, it won’t play.”
The Four Noble Truths All Life is Suffering The Cause of Suffering is the desire for things The only cure for Suffering is to overcome desire The way to overcome desire is through the eightfold path
The Eightfold Path Right views Right aspirations Right speech Right conduct Right livelihood Right effort Right mindset Right contemplation
Buddhist goal of life: To unite with the universe and achieve nirvana through the cycle of reincarnation.
Main Buddhist Texts Tripitaka- “three breadbaskets of wisdom” Tibetan Book of the Dead Mahayana Sutras
There are many similarities between Buddhism and Hinduism Ultimate goal of both is to break the cycle of reincarnation Both believe in dharma and karma Both are committed to ahimsa -- nonviolence Strive in both to achieve enlightenment Neither requires worship in a temple
But there are also many differences No gods in Buddhism No caste system in Buddhism Anyone can achieve enlightenment in Buddhism