Presentation on theme: "The Federal Bureaucracy. The combination of people, procedures, and agencies through which the federal government operates makes up the FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY."— Presentation transcript:
The combination of people, procedures, and agencies through which the federal government operates makes up the FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY. A bureaucracy is a complex system of organization. Article II, section 2 of the Constitution says that the President may need to consult with the principle officer in each of the executive departments. Other than this vague reference, the Constitution is silent.
The bureaucracy is administered by the executive branch, and is regulated by the legislative branch.
Development of an Executive Staff: Employment of first paid presidential clerk, 1857 Employment of three secretaries & five assistants, 1939 Reorganization Act (1939) this established the Executive Office of the President & expanded advisors of the president into the White House Staff.
The White House Staff Duties: Provides advice to the President, creates policy options, channels and organizes information, write speeches and policy papers, organizes the schedule of the President, controls access to the president, monitors & maintains contact with the executive bureaucracy.
Chief of Staff: organizes staff; controls access to the President Press Secretary: Handles & schedules press briefings & conferences; prepares press releases First Lady: Ceremonial hostess since Dolly Madison: Hillary Rodham Clinton & Eleanor Roosevelt have not served as hostesses, but have taken an active role in assisting their husbands. Vice-President: Presiding officer of Senate; after 1950, unofficial duties increased.
Executive Office of the President: Office of Management & Budget (OMB), 1970: prepares the budget of the president to be sent to Congress. Management of the deficit. Monitoring of funds allocated by Congress Overseer of Federal bureaucracy
National Security Council: Members are the president, Vice-President, Secretaries of Defense & State; In attendance are Director of the CIA and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Duties: Advice to President on national security issues
Office of Policy Development: Chairman & Staff; Assists the President in policy development, providing of information non domestic matters. Council of Economic Advisors: Three economists who provide info on the state of the economy for the US; assist the President with messages about economy to Congress.
Other Offices... *Council on Environmental Quality *Office of Science & Technology *Office of US Trade Representative *Office of the Vice-President *Intelligence Oversight Board *Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board *Office of National Drug Control
The rest of the bureaucracy: The Cabinet Independent Executive Agencies Independent Regulatory Agencies Regulatory Agencies Public Corporations
Cabinet: Advice to the President in particular area of expertise. Cabinet Offices: 1. State15. Dept. of Homeland Security 2. Treasury 3. War (now Defense) 4. Interior 5. Justice 6. Agriculture 7. Commerce 8. Labor 9. Health, Education & welfare 10. Housing & Urban Development 11. Transportation 12. Energy 13. Education 14. Veterans Affairs
Independent Executive Agencies: Executive organizations without Cabinet level affiliation. Examples: NASA, EPA, & CIA Top administrator, appointed by the President without senate approval; Congress restricts through budget and oversight.
Independent Regulatory Agencies: Congressionally formed bipartisan agencies; independent of the President & Congress. Examples: FCC, FTC, ICC Holds hearing to determine violations. Made of of a bipartisan board, with lengthy, staggered terms; appointed by the President, approved by Senate
Regulatory Agencies: Examples: FDA, OHSHA, IRS, Federal Reserve System Regulates economic activity; Appointed by President without Senate approval; Congress restricts through budget & oversight.
Public Corporations: Created by legislative charters. Example: FDIC, TVE, US Postal Service Board of Directors to create policy; General manger to implement policy; appointed by President with Senate approval; budget appropriated by Congress; government ownership of stock.
Influences on the Bureaucracy: Congress: creates new departments, agencies, commissions, controls budgets, maintains of civil service system.
President: Overall coordination of the bureaucracy; appoints leadership, most times with Senate approval; submits annual budget to the Congress; power to reform and reorganize bureaucracy.
Problems with a bureaucracy: Poor coordination between & among departments, agencies, commissions. Rigid, maybe unclear guidelines and regulations. Huge bureaucracy in 20th Century. A whole bunch of red tape.