2 DefinitionEnglish is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European family that originated from the Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands.
4 The Indo-European Family is thought to have originated in the forests north of the Black Sea (in what is now Ukraine) during the Neoloithic period (about 7000BC). These people bagan to migrate between 3500BC and 2500BC, spreading west to Europe, south to the Mediterranian, north to Scandinavia, and east to India.
5 Many of the most important languages of the world are Indo-European Many of the most important languages of the world are Indo-European. These languages are official or co-official in many countries and are important in academic, technical and world organisations. Examples: English, Spanish, French, German, Russian
6 The Indo-European Family is divided into twelve branches, ten of which contain existing languages.
7 Official Language United States (215 million) United Kingdom(61 million),Canada (18.2 million)Australia(15.5 million)Nigeria (4 million)Ireland (3.8 million)South Africa (3.7 million)New Zealand (3.6 million)TOTAL: 375 million
10 Vocabulary 40.000 words at the beginning 46.000 words every century words todayThe English vocabulary was borrowed from Latin, French, Low German, and the Scandinavian languages
11 The British Council says "English is the main language of books, newspapers, airports and air-traffic control, international business and academic conferences, science, technology, diplomacy, sport, international competitions, pop music and advertising”.
12 The history of the English language has traditionally been divided into three main periods: Old English ( AD), Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD) and Modern English (since 1500). Over the centuries, the English language has been influenced by a number of other languages.
13 Old English ( AD): During the 5th Century AD three Germanic tribes (Saxons, Angles, and Jutes) came to the British Isles from various parts of northwest Germany as well as Denmark. These tribes were warlike and pushed out most of the original, Celtic-speaking inhabitants from England into Scotland, Wales, and Cornwall. One group migrated to the Brittany Coast of France where their descendants still speak the Celtic Language of Breton today.
14 Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD): After William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England in 1066 AD with his armies and became king, he brought his nobles, who spoke French, to be the new government. The Old French took over as the language of the court, administration, and culture. Latin was mostly used for written language, especially that of the Church. Meanwhile, The English language, as the language of the now lower class, was considered a vulgar tongue.The Canterbury Tales
15 Modern English (1500 to the present): Modern English developed after William Caxton established his printing press at Westminster Abbey in Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press in Germany around 1450, but Caxton set up England's first press. The Bible and some valuable manuscripts were printed. The invention of the printing press made books available to more people. The books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Shakespeare