2 Wall and Ceiling Construction Chapter19Wall and Ceiling Construction
3 Objectives List the members of a typical frame wall. Explain methods of frame wall construction.Describe the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of steel framing in residential construction.Explain information shown on a ceiling joist span data chart.Describe types of masonry wall construction.
4 ObjectivesIdentify the basic processes used to produce a quality, three-coat stucco finish.Describe the proper application of exterior insulation finish systems.Identify the uses of structural insulated panels in residential construction.Describe the types of insulated concrete forms used in concrete wall construction.
5 Residential Wall Construction Three types:Frame (wood and steel)MasonryCombination frame and masonryWall panels may be constructed on site or prefabricated at another location
6 Frame Wall Typical framing members: Sole plates Top plates Studs HeadersBracing
11 Plates Sole plate Plate is nailed to top of studs Bottom horizontal member of wall on which studs restWall studs are cut to length and nailed to sole platePlate is nailed to top of studsSecond plate is added after wall is in place
12 Headers Sustains weight above openings for doors and windows Two basic approachesSolid blockingHeader-and-stud framing
13 Solid BlockingHeader size is increased to fill space from top of rough opening to top plateTrimmers (jack studs) are positioned inside openingTrimmers are nailed to king studs on either side of opening
17 Rough Openings in Frame Walls Rough openings for windows and doors are dimensioned to center of opening in frame wallSpecific dimensions are provided by scheduleRough opening height of most doors is 6'-10"
18 Exterior Corners and Bracing Corner must provide:Nailing edge for interior wall materialAdequate support for the structureCorner bracing is required by most codesTwo methods:Diagonal corner bracesSheet of plywood nailed to studs at each corner
20 Interior Framed Walls Constructed in same way as exterior walls Sole plates, studs, and double top platesInterior walls are securely fastened to walls they intersectNailing edge must be provided for drywall, paneling, etc.
22 Steel Framing Steel framing is gaining in popularity Quality wood is scarce and expensiveSteel framing has performed well in commercial constructionSteel framing is made from recyclable materialPrice of steel has been relatively stable
23 Steel Framing—Advantages and Disadvantages Steel framing has manyadvantagesBenefits to buildersBenefits to homeownersEnvironmental benefitsSome disadvantagesDesigners and builders need to develop greater familiarity with capabilities of steel framing systems
24 Steel Framing Components Structural C (C-section)Standard dimensions are nearly identical to those of dimensional lumberThickness ranges from 12 to 22 gaugeLoad-bearing applications use 16 to 20 gauge steel C-sections
25 Steel Framing Components C-section is unpunched or prepunchedTrack or channel members are used for rim joists, top and bottom plates, and blockingTrack is available in lengths up to 10'Hot-rolled channel is used for furringAll members are fastened with screws
26 Steel Wall and Roof Systems Construction elements of a framed house include floors, walls, and roofsTwo types of steel studs are used for wallsStructural C for load-bearing wallsDrywall studs for nonbearing partitions
27 Ceiling ConstructionCeiling joists may be put in place after exterior and interior walls are finishedJoists are generally positioned in same direction as raftersCeiling joist size will depend on load, span, wood species, joist spacing, etc.Check local code
28 Ceiling ConstructionCeiling construction differs from floor construction in two main waysHeader is not required around perimeterSmaller size lumber is usedLong spans may require support from a bearing wall partition or beam
29 General Framing Considerations Access hole must be provided in ceiling to allow entry into atticFraming around ceiling openings is same as for openings in floorDouble headers are used for large holes
30 Special Framing Special framing is required for: Openings for heating ductsWall backing for various fixturesExtra support for bathtubFraming for bay window presents special problems
31 Masonry Wall Construction Solid wallCavity wall (concrete block wall)Brick, concrete block, stone, clay tile, terra cotta, or combinationMasonry walls for residential construction are usually 8" thick
32 Masonry Wall Construction Walls that required more than one thickness of masonry have all thicknesses bonded together
33 Masonry Wall Construction Solid masonry walls require furring strips if drywall or paneling is usedFirecut is used when floor joists are placed directly into solid masonry walls
34 Attaching Top PlatesTop plate for roof must be anchored securely to solid masonry wallAnchor bolts are used to secure the plate
35 Brick Names and Sizes Face brick Common brick Generally used as a facing materialVery uniform in shapeCommon brickGenerally used as a backing materialRustic appearance when used as facing material