Presentation on theme: "References & Bibliographies. What you will learn: What are references & bibliographies. Why provide references & bibliographies. Different styles of references."— Presentation transcript:
What you will learn: What are references & bibliographies. Why provide references & bibliographies. Different styles of references. When to use a reference. How to reference: within your assignment. at the end of your assignment (i.e. bibliography)
What are references & bibliographies? When you summarise, refer to or quote from an author’s work you need to give them credit. You have to provide a reference. A bibliography is a list of books (or other sources of information) that you have referenced or consulted when writing your assignment.
Why provide references & bibliographies? To acknowledge use of other people’s work and avoid accusations of plagiarism. To allow readers of your work to see how your argument was assembled and what your influences have been. To gain extra marks!
What is Plagiarism? Webster’s Dictionary defines Plagiarism as follows: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own. to use (another's production) without crediting the source. to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source. to commit literary theft! Your essay has to be your own work! Cutting and pasting is NOT allowed. Every time you use a source, make a note of its details so that you can include it in your bibliography.
Different styles of reference There are many different styles of reference. The Harvard Style is one of the most popular and is used in many schools and universities. You must always be consistent – use the same style throughout your assignment.
When should you use a reference? You must provide a reference in the text of your assignment every time you quote directly or indirectly from someone else’s work, idea or viewpoint.
How to reference? (within your assignment) The author’s name & year of publication are placed in brackets at the point of reference: e.g. Girls are considered to create fewer problems than boys (Furlong 1985)
How to reference? (within your assignment) If the author’s name has occurred naturally in your own text, then you can omit it from the brackets: e.g. Beckett and Corkin (1991) suggest that girls fear failure.
How to reference? (within your assignment) If you are referencing a direct quotation you should also include the page number(s) on which the quote appears: e.g. …and the “sombre, disturbing” aspect of Picasso’s art (Golding 1981 p.63) are further emphasised… Gorbachev (1988 P.84) describes his concept of economic reform as “an all-embracing, comprehensive character”…
How to reference? (at the end of your assignment) You must provide a reference list or bibliography at the end of your assignment. This will include all the sources you have referenced as well as other sources you have consulted. There are rules governing how bibliographies are written.
Bibliographies (Books) Author/editors surname (in capitals) comma followed by first name initial(s) (with a full stop after each initial) For two authors, put and between the names. For three or more, separate the names with commas and put and before the final name. Year of publication (in round brackets) Full title of book (in italics) then full stop Edition of work (if more than one edition) full stop then comma Place of publication then colon Publisher then full stop Include series and individual volume number, if relevant, in round brackets after the publisher, then full stop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6jk7L4dxcI
Bibliographies (Articles) Author’s surnames (in capitals) comma, then first name initial(s) (with a full stop after each initial) If there are more than three authors, list only the first one, followed by “et al” Year of publication (in round brackets) Title of article (in mixed case) then full stop Title of journal (in italics) then comma Volume number Issue number (in brackets) then comma Page numbers in the form of p. for page or pp. for more than one page, followed by the number(s) then full stop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1QDm4NUZS8&feature =relmfu
Bibliographies (Websites) Author(s)/editor(s) surname (in capitals) comma, then first initial(s) with a full stop after each initial. Year of publication (in brackets) Title of webpage (in italics) Format (e.g. online) (in square brackets) then full stop Place of publication (if this is given) then colon Publisher then full stop “Available from:” and the web address “Accessed” and the accessed date (in square brackets) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_B4NEyCcx4& feature=plcp
Web2 Twitter- screenshot Blogs – line count of posting ( unless too long then URL) YouTube – time of quote All must still include the normal referencing for Internet sources – URL, Date accessed etc Social Networking – Facebook etc ( not an academic source – check with examining body)