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Introductions and Conclusions English –Mrs. Rice.

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1 Introductions and Conclusions English –Mrs. Rice

2 Save the first for last Save the first for last  Have at least a working version of major thesis before drafting, but save the introduction for later.  Then it will truly introduce what’s written instead of what a writer intended.  This ties the introduction more effectively to the conclusion by writing them both at the same time.

3 Attention-getting openings  A universal idea related to your thesis  A rich, vivid description or image  A fresh analogy or metaphor  An interesting anecdote, story, or dramatic episode  A thought-provoking question  A startling fact or bit of information  A meaningful quotation

4 Effective introductions “can stop traffic” “can stop traffic”

5 Openings to AVOID  Dictionary definitions of words your reader should know.  “Did you know?” or “Have you ever wondered?” rhetorical questions  “This paper will be about …” “In this paper I will prove”

6 More opening mistakes to avoid  Beginning too far away from your actual topic (“There are many novels, all of which have characters. Some characters are heroes, and some are not.”)  A “book report” list of irrelevant facts (William Shakespeare lived in the Elizabethan era in England. He wrote many plays. One of these plays was Hamlet.)

7 Hint about openings  When previewing main topics in your introduction, make sure you list them in the order in which they appear in your paper.

8 What goes in the introduction  Essential background about your topic and preparation for your major thesis.  Road maps for the rest of the essay, previewing major ideas and posing important questions that you will consider in your paper.

9 The intro & the thesis sentence  Introduction ends with your major thesis statement.  Make special attempts to link the thesis statement to the sentence that precedes it by building on a key word or idea.

10 Ending the essay

11 The conclusion  Your conclusion wraps up your argument and leaves the reader with some final ideas to think about.  Your conclusion should stem from what you have already written.  Effective conclusions, therefore, often refer back to ideas presented in a paper’s introduction.

12 Purpose of the conclusion  Should echo the major thesis without repeating words verbatim (word for word).  Should move beyond thesis statement to reflect on significance of ideas just presented.  Should indicate why these ideas are important.

13 Effective conclusions  Reflect on how topic relates to larger issues (in the novel, in society, in history)  Show how topic affects the reader’s life  Evaluate the concepts presented  Issue a call for action on the part of the audience

14 More about effective conclusions  Ask questions generated by essay’s findings  Make predictions  Recommend a solution  End with a ‘bang’ instead of a ‘whimper’

15 Even more about effective conclusions  Connect back to introduction, esp. if writer used a metaphor, anecdote, or vivid image  Give a personal statement about the topic

16 Conclusions to AVOID:  Beginning with “In conclusion …”  Restating thesis and main points without adding anything new  Bringing up a new topic  Adding irrelevant details (esp. just to make a paper longer) (esp. just to make a paper longer)

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