Presentation on theme: "MRHS Introduction to Research"— Presentation transcript:
1 MRHS Introduction to Research What is research, but a blind date with knowledge. - William Henry
2 Objective: To review basic rules and concepts that apply to research writing.
3 In this lesson, we will cover the following: Summarizing, Quoting, and ParaphrasingParenthetical DocumentationWorks Cited PageUnacceptable Research Sources
4 Writers use quotes for several reasons: When do you quote?Writers use quotes for several reasons:to assert factsas a voice that adds authority or color to an assertion being made; and most importantly,to avoid plagiarismKeep in mind that the quote must have a meaningful impact!
5 Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Quotations must be identical to the original source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage.Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to cite summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.from
6 Parenthetical Documentation The information in your parenthesis in the text must match the referenced entry in the Works Cited list. For example, if the text citation is (Jones 42), then the reader should be able to go to the Works Cited page, follow alphabetically down the list of sources, find Jones and the remainder of the works cited entry.
7 Parenthetical Documentation Use the author’s last name or a shortened version of the title:a. Works by one author: Give the author’s last name in parentheses followed by the page number: (Smith 67).b. Works by more than one author: List both of the last names in parentheses (Smith and Brown 10) or give one last name followed by et. al (for 3 or more authors). (Erickson et. al. 52).c. Works with no author listed: When citing an article with no author identified, use the title of the work or a shortened version of it: (“Security software” 22).Note that if your source using quotation marks or italics in the works cited entry, they must also be in your parenthetical documentation.
8 Parenthetical Documentation d. Two works by the same author: If you use several works by the same author, give the title, or a shortened version, after the author’s last name: (Smith, “Health” 208).e. Verse plays and poems: Cite verse by divisions (act, scene, canto, book, part) and lines. Use periods to separate the various parts.EX- When she learns that Romeo is a Montague, Juliet exclaims, “My only love, sprung from my only hate! / Too early seen unknown, and known too late!” ( ).f. Indirect source: If you cite an indirect source (remarks quoted by your source) use the abbreviation qtd. in (quoted in) before the indirect source in parentheses.EX- According to Papillon, “Prison conditions were improved by the development of unique rehabilitation programs, including gardening, boat building, and biological studies” (qtd. in McQueen 42).
9 Parenthetical Documentation and Page Numbers In addition to the author or title of your piece in the parenthetical documentation, you may also need to provide page numbers. Print source: give the page number or numbers example: Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
10 Parenthetical Documentation and Page Numbers Online source: Do not include the page number if a work lacks page numbers, as is the case with many Web sources. Even if a printout from a Web site shows page numbers, treat the source as unpaginated in the in-text citation because not all printouts give the same page numbers. (When the pages of a Web source are stable, as in PDF files, supply a page number in your in-text citation.)
11 Parenthetical Documentation and Page Numbers If a source has numbered paragraphs or sections, use par. or sec. in the parentheses. Example: According to the article “Why Waste Time” the Internet ranked as the top choice among employees for ways of wasting time on the job (par. 3).
12 Parenthetical Documentation and Page Numbers Web pages commonly omit paragraph and section numbers and are not organized by paragraphs. In such cases, omit numbers from your parenthetical reference.Example:The internet ranked as the top choice among employees for ways of wasting time on the job (“Why Waste Time”).Bottom Line: If you have paragraph numbers, include them – if you don’t have a paragraph number just include whatever comes first in the works cited entry.
13 Punctuation with Parenthetical Documentation For print or PDF sources do not use p or p. or pg., but just the number itself.Examples: (Smith 81) or (Tannen and Weber 46) or (“Monsters” 99)For all short quotes and paraphrase, place the parenthesis after the last word in the sentence, and the period after the parenthesis, in order to avoid interrupting the flow of your paper.Example: Between 2000 and 2008, the internet became much more influential in presidential campaigning (Swanson 27).
14 A Few HintsPut in italics journal titles, web page titles, and book titles.Don’t underline anything – italicize only!Journal titles go in quotation marksNever name the author by the first name! You can list by last name, but the first mention should be first and last name.Quotes and paraphrases cannot be topic sentences!Match your works cited page!Quotes and paraphrases cannot be the final sentence of your paragraph.
15 The Works Cited Page Must be titled Works Cited Must be double-spaced All entries must be in alphabetical order by whatever comes first in the works cited entry.All works cited entries must match your parenthetical documentation!Review the sample MLA formatted paper and works cited page in your Student Style Handbook!
16 Unacceptable Research Sources WikipediaAsk.com123helpmeSpark NotesEnd notesDictionary.com (any dictionary web site)Any general quotation website