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Digital Multimedia, 2nd edition Nigel Chapman & Jenny Chapman Chapter 8 This presentation © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions Animation
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 The creation of moving pictures one frame at a time Literally 'to bring to life' e.g. make a sequence of drawings on paper, in which a character's position changes slightly in each drawing Photograph drawings in sequence, using movie camera that advances one frame at a time Play back resulting film – character will move Animation 242
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Drawings/paintings on paper 1440 drawings for every minute of film Cel Painted or scratched film Cut-outs Clay animation (Claymation) etc Traditional Methods 243–244
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Computer + video camera + traditional technique Frame grabbing – record each frame to disk Save as QuickTime &c, edit non-linearly like video Can also use scanner or digital still camera, or create each frame in a graphics program (e.g. Painter) Captured Animation 245–246
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Use layers (e.g. in Photoshop) like sheets of acetate in traditional cel animation e.g. static background on one layer, moving simple object on a layer in front of it. Make the object move by repositioning the layer More complex cases, just need to change those layers where movement or other change occurs between frames Digital Cel 249–250
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Store a single copy of all static elements and moving objects (sprites) and a description of how the objects move Each sprite can be a collection of images called sprite faces, which can be substituted in sequence to produce composite motion e.g. walk cycle Sprite Animation 250
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Traditional: key frames drawn by chief animators at important points in the animation In-between frames drawn by less skilled animators Computer-based: key frames drawn explicitly In-between frames interpolated by software Key Frame Animation 251–252
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Constant velocity Motion begins and ends instantaneously Linear Interpolation 252
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Object accelerates, gradual transition from stasis to motion Easing In 253
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Object decelerates, gradual transition from motion to stasis Easing Out 253
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Sequence of images can be stored in a single GIF file, and displayed one after another by a Web browser or other software No browser plug-in required Can specify looping, delay between frames 256 colour palette No sound Animated GIFs 247–249
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Popular Web animation format Usually generated by Macromedia Flash Vector animation format Motion represented as numerical operations on vector data Can also include bitmapped images (e.g. as backgrounds) SWF 254
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Timeline – graphical representation of sequence of frames Key frames – drawn/copied from previous and transformed Simple frames – hold on previous key frame Stage – sub-window in which frames are created by drawing with vector tools Can also import bitmaps as objects, add text Flash 254–256
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Reusable objects stored in a library Graphic symbols Button symbols (for interactivity) Movie clip symbols (self-contained animations within a movie) Create instances by dragging on to stage If symbol is edited, all its instances updated Symbols 256–257
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Motion tweening Object is placed in a key frame Create Motion Tween Object is turned into a symbol Add key frame at end of tweened sequence and move or transform object Motion in intermediate frames is interpolated (tweened) Motion Tweening 256
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Also called morphing Shapes of graphical objects are transformed in between key frames Have to generate the interpolated frames, so resulting SWF is bigger than when motion tweening is used Shape Tweening 257
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Like time-based graphic design Move, transform, alter layers of a bitmapped image between frames Apply time-varying filters and effects AfterEffects supports linear and Bézier interpolation in both space and time (rate of change) Can have new effects that only make sense in time, e.g. shatter, particle effects Motion Graphics 261–266
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 "Easy to describe but much harder to do" Properties of 3-D models (shape, size, position, rotation, surface characteristics, etc), light sources and cameras are numerically defined Animate a scene by changing the numbers, rendering a new frame, changing further … Can make objects move, or move the camera Requires 3-D visualization and animation skills and great amount of processing power 3-D Animation 266–267
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Useful for animating jointed structures, especially limbs of human or animal figures Model must obey kinematic constraints e.g. if upper arm moves, lower arm and hand must move with it Inverse kinematics follows chain in reverse (easier for the animator) e.g position the hand, then compute motion of the rest of the arm move to accommodate it Inverse Kinematics 268
© 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 8 Strictly, an immersive sensory experience of a synthetic world Head-mounted displays, data gloves, haptic interfaces, etc More modestly, 3-D graphic that can be explored Draggable panorama, objects that can be moved round, etc VRML, QuickTime VR Virtual Reality 269–271
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