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In-service training programme for English Language teachers

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Presentation on theme: "In-service training programme for English Language teachers"— Presentation transcript:

1 In-service training programme for English Language teachers
(Grades 1-11) in the context of the updated curriculum for 11 years’ comprehensive school education in the Republic of Kazakhstan Presenter’s Name MONTH 2014

2 Trainer introduction Photo should be inserted here Trainer Name

3 Introduction to 20 days of training
Days 1 to 4 overview of the updated curriculum, its structure, the necessary pedagogy for it to be effective and the criteria-based assessment mechanism Days 5 to 20 subject-specific aspects of the curriculum (active and practical) micro-teaching self-reflection and meta-cognitive tasks Timing of sessions, breaks, fire drills, mobile phones etc.

4 Background to the training
Kazakhstan’s 2050 vision Prepare learners for future challenges Kazakhstan aims to become one of the leading countries in high quality education: - outcomes-based curriculum - pedagogical approach - assessment model

5 Day 1 Introduction to the updated curriculum

6 Day 1 Training objectives (1)
Introductions from trainer and from teachers Teachers understand the schedule for training To introduce key terminology and documentation of the updated curriculum To begin to know the content and coverage of the updated curriculum

7 Day 1 Training objectives (2)
To be more aware of the content of the subject programmes and course plan To understand that content has been removed from the current curriculum to allow time for the development of skills To recognise the need for updated teaching strategies To know how to support language learning To be introduced to the term ‘spiral curriculum’

8 Day 1 Overview Session 1 Introduction to the training Session 2
The updated curriculum Session 3 Structure of subject programme and course plans Session 4 Language development

9 Day 1 Session 1 – Introduction to the training: session overview
Introductions Course aims and structure What I know and what I want to learn Priorities

10 Day 1 Session 1 – teacher introductions
Introduce yourself to a partner/the whole group Include at least one interesting piece of information If you could magically acquire one new skill, what would it be? What have you never done that you would like to do? Which adjective best describes your character? 10

11 Day 1 Session 1 – In-service training programme
Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS) were introduced in 2011 NIS have established trilingual schools following an updated curriculum and assessment model They have also implemented innovative educational practices CoE to transfer am updated curriculum, assessment model and educational practices based on NIS model There are three phases of implementation for language subjects

12 Day 1 Session 1 – In-service training programme
The objectives of this year’s in-service training programme are: to support educational renewal in schools to introduce a updated curriculum, adapted from the NIS curriculum, starting from Grade 1 from September 2016 to introduce updatded subject programmes for key subjects into the existing secondary school curriculum from September 2016 to introduce a new criteria-based assessment model for the updated primary curriculum and key secondary curriculum subjects

13 Day 1 Session 1 – In-service training programme
Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS) were introduced in 2011 NIS have established trilingual schools following a updated curriculum and assessment model They have also implemented innovative educational practices CoE to transfer an updated curriculum, assessment model and educational practices based on NIS model There are three phases of implementation for language subjects

14 Day 1 Session 1 – Aims of this course
To enable the successful implementation of the updated curriculum To ensure teachers are familiar with the updated curriculum To support outstanding teaching and learning

15 Day 1 Session 1 – Course structure
Theme of day 1 Introduction to the updated curriculum 11 Secondary listening and speaking 2 Effective teaching and learning 12 Developing resources 3 Assessment 13 Progression and achievement 4 Delivering the updated curriculum: planning and resources 14 Planning language lessons 5 Language skills   15 Engaging learners 6 Primary listening and speaking skills 16 Review of primary resources 7 Primary reading and writing skills 17 8 Language classroom management 18 Planning and delivering lessons 9 Developing learner language awareness 19 10 Secondary reading and writing skills 20 Key concept review

16 Day 1 Session 1 – Overview of days 1 to 4
Introduction to the updated curriculum Day 2 Effective teaching and learning Day 3 Assessment Day 4 Delivering the updated curriculum: planning and resources

17 What I want to learn handout (individual)
Priorities (whole group feedback) Any outstanding questions? Next session

18 End of Session 1

19 Day 1 Session 2 – The updated curriculum: session overview
Key curriculum terms and documents Begin to know content, coverage

20 All subjects in updated curriculum
Primary Secondary High

21 Three phases of implementation
For language subjects there will be 3 phases of subject programme implementation G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 G12 Number of SPs in use 1 2 3 4 Updated Grade 1-12 Curriculum

22 Making connections between key documents: subject programmes, course plans and assessment guidance
Learning objectives Suggested activities based on learning objectives Course Plans Supports decisions regarding Formative Assessment of learning objectives Guidance for Formative Assessment

23 Day 1 Session 2 – Subject programme contents (1)
Part 1: General information 1.1 The importance of the subject in the curriculum 1.2 The aims of the subject programme 1.3 Implementation of the trilingual policy 1.4 Description of the organisational requirements for the subject 1.5 Pedagogic approaches for the subject

24 Day 1 Session 2 – Subject programme contents (2)
Part 1: General information (continued) 1.6 Developing respect for diversity of culture and opinion in the subject 1.7 Competence in the use of digital technologies in the subject 1.8 Developing communication skills in the subject 1.9 Approaches to assessment in the subject Part 2: Content 2.1 Subject programme content, organisation and progression

25 Day 1 Session 2 – Course plans: sections
Long-term plan Introduction to language objectives Medium-term plan Short-term lesson plan

26 End of Session 2

27 Day 1 Session 3 – Structure of subject programme and course plans: session overview
Analysis of subject programme and course plans Group discussion and whole group feedback ‘Spiral curriculum’

28 Analysis of subject programme
Four columns handout Analysis of course plan Four columns handout

29 Day 1 Session 3 – Spiral curriculum
Topics are revisited, sometimes within and across terms Topics should be taught in greater depth each time Level of difficulty should increase 29

30 End of Session 3 What we have just covered, what we will cover next

31 Day 1 Session 4 – Language development: session overview
The importance of communication in the updated curriculum Language support in course plan units Writing a language objective for a lesson

32 Day 1 Session 4 – The importance of communication
Why do you think teachers need to support language learning? How can we do this?

33 Day 1 Session 4 – Subject programme: communication in the curriculum
From the subject programmes: Education Organizations of the Republic of Kazakhstan build the base of communicative competence of learners with the aim to develop functional literacy. (Section 1.3) In order to support the learning of content subject matter, subject teachers also support the learning of subject-specific academic language. (Section 1.5) Throughout the curriculum, learners will be encouraged to communicate in both oral and written forms with their fellow learners, teachers and wider audiences using a range of media and academic language with accuracy. (Section 1.8)

34 How do the course plans help to provide language support?
Day 1 Session 4 – Subject programme: summary of communication in the curriculum To provide language support: introduce and use subject-specific vocabulary encourage learners to actively use all four skills: reading writing speaking listening How do the course plans help to provide language support? 34

35 Day 1 Session 4 – How can you provide language support?
During the lesson: state the language objective write key words on the board and pre-teach them use all four skills At the end of the lesson: review progress against the language objective give feedback on language and communication as well as content 35

36 Day 1 Session 4 – Writing language objectives
Write and share a language objective for a course plan lesson. Subject: ……. Grade: ……. Lesson subject objective: Outline of teaching activity: Language objective: Subject-specific vocabulary: Useful classroom language for dialogue/writing: 36

37 Day 1 Plenary Review of Day 1
Preview of Day 2: Effective teaching and learning Characteristics of effective teaching and learning Active learning (1) Active learning (2) Learning environment Self-evaluation form

38 Day 2 Effective teaching and learning

39 Day 2 Training objectives
To be aware of the characteristics of effective teaching and learning To know the pedagogical approach to be taken as identified in the subject programmes To participate in an active learning activity To understand what active learning is To incorporate active learning principles into teaching activities To know that learning should be objective led, not activity driven

40 Day 2 Training objectives
To know what an effective learning environment should be like To explore possibilities for display as a learning tool To understand how to create and develop an interactive learning environment

41 Day 2 Overview Session 1 Characteristics of effective teaching and learning Session 2 Active learning 1 Session 3 Active learning 2 Session 4 Learning environment Recap on Day 1

42 Day 2 Session 1 – Characteristics of effective teaching and learning: session overview
Discussing ideas for characteristics Matching characteristics to classroom images Thinking of examples of characteristics in own classroom

43 Day 2 Session 1 – What are the characteristics of effective teaching and learning?
Discussion in pairs List five characteristics of effective teaching and learning Share ideas in small groups

44 Day 2 Session 1 – Some characteristics of effective teaching and learning
In pairs, match these pictures to possible characteristics listed on the handout B D A C

45 Day 2 Session 1 – Some characteristics of effective teaching and learning
In pairs, match these pictures to possible characteristics listed on the handout F G E G H

46 Day 2 Session 1 – 1 Active learning
Learning from own experiences: Allows learners to experiment, construct meaning and develop understanding Relates new knowledge to existing knowledge Making mistakes makes us check and refine our understanding Results in deeper learning Changes attitudes Picture F

47 Day 2 Session 1 – 2 Collaborative learning
Structured group work: Improves interpersonal and communication skills Improves acquisition of information and higher-level thinking skills Promotes positive interdependence – ‘we succeed together’ Can break down barriers between learners Picture B

48 Day 2 Session 1 – 3 Differentiation
Meeting the individual learning needs of each learner: Increases progression of understanding and skills Improves confidence and motivation Stimulates creativity by helping learners to understand ideas better Benefits all learners Can raise expectations for all learners Picture H

49 Day 2 Session 1 – 4 Cross-curricular links
Creating links between subjects: Adds breadth and balance to the curriculum Allows deeper learning Provides a broader range of skills Can help with progression of understanding and skills Can help to put learning into a more meaningful context Can make learning more motivating Picture C

50 Day 2 Session 1 – 5 Responding to learners’ needs
Checking learning and giving feedback to inform learning: Improves motivation and self- esteem Gives direction to teaching Provides opportunities for learners to improve their work Helps learners to understand how to learn more effectively Picture A

51 Day 2 Session 1 – 6 Learning conversations
Learners talking about a task: Gives learners more ownership Encourages transfer of knowledge and skills between learners Encourages deeper understanding Provides opportunities for learners to reflect on their progress and decide what to do next Challenges and motivates learner Picture D

52 Day 2 Session 1 – 7 Using e-learning and new technology
Using technology: Offers exciting tools for active learning Can be motivating Can be used to research, communicate, collaborate and create Can give learners more ownership of a task by allowing them to search for information and find their own tools Allows opportunities for learning outside the classroom Picture G

53 Day 2 Session 1 – 8 Modelling
An expert giving an example whilst explaining their accompanying thought processes: Exposes learners to subject content and expert thinking simultaneously Breaks a task into steps, allowing learners to become increasingly independent Stimulates reflection on the processes Picture E

54 Day 2 Session 1 In pairs Whole group discussion
How do these characteristics compare with the ‘Pedagogic approach’ section of the subject programme? Whole group discussion How is the approach similar/different to what occurs in your schools now? What are the issues in implementing these approaches? How can we address these? Recap on Day 1

55 End of Session 1

56 Day 2 Sessions 2 and 3 – Active learning: training objectives
To participate in an active learning activity  To understand what active learning is To incorporate active learning principles into their own teaching activities To know that learning should be objective led, not activity driven

57 Day 2 Session 2 – An active learner
Group discussion What does an active learner look like? Label a picture of a person with key qualities and characteristics Share with the whole group

58 What does an active teacher look like?
Day 2 Session 2 – An active teacher What does an active teacher look like?

59 Day 2 Session 2 – An active teacher: Active learning principles 1
To enable progress: Repeat learning objectives Present different activities Practise skills Build on prior learning

60 Day 2 Session 2 – An active teacher: Active learning principles 2
To support learning: Promote curiosity Ask questions Experiment Suggest Invent Teach to learning styles

61 Day 2 Session 2 – An active teacher: Active learning principles 3
Make sure resources are: Organised Accessible Shared Familiar Made Used regularly Built up over time Good quality

62 Day 2 Session 2 – What is active learning?
Different teaching strategies = an environment for learners to develop knowledge, skills and understanding I listen but I forget! I see and I believe I do then I understand!

63 Day 2 Session 2 – Using your senses to learn
Ears Eyes Voice Touch X Receive information Apply learning

64 Day 2 Session 2 Active learning is … Learning by doing
Having FUN learning! Active learning is …

65 End of Session 2

66 Day 2 Session 3 – Training objectives
To incorporate active learning principles into their own teaching activities To know that learning should be objective led, not activity driven

67 Day 2 Session 3 – Using active learning in your own teaching
Individuals Think of a successful activity you have taught recently Small groups Share your activities. Record aspects of active learning Whole group Share some good examples of active learning What makes it a successful learning experience?

68 Day 2 Session 3 – 1. Why do we ask questions? Possible reasons
To identify gaps in learning To direct learner’s thinking To assess To prompt further questions To revise a topic To excite interest or curiosity To challenge To model questioning and thinking To help clarify understanding To evaluate

69 2. What makes a good question?
Day 2 Session 3 – 2. What makes a good question? Open questions are more likely to improve learning. They encourage talking and thinking e.g. Which metals are magnetic? Closed questions generate “yes”/“no” answers. They can be useful but are not good at encouraging talking and thinking e.g. Is copper magnetic?

70 Day 3 Session 4 – 2. What makes a good question?
General open questions How can we …? How did you …? What would happen if …? Tell me about …? What do you think about …? Complete the questions to make questions you might ask in your classroom

71 ? Day 3 Session 4 – 2. What makes a good question? Invert the question
Instead of asking a question that requires factual recall, invert it e.g. Is copper a metal? … becomes … Why is copper a metal? ?

72 2. What makes a good question?
Day 3 Session 4 – 2. What makes a good question? X and Y Ask learners why X is an example of Y, e.g. Why is an apple an example of a fruit? Why is a fox an example of a mammal? This sort of questioning requires more than factual recall – it asks for an explanation of learners’ reasoning .

73 Day 2 Session 3 – 3. Who asks the questions? Learners asking questions
Create opportunities for learners to ask questions: ask the teacher ask each other a ‘question box’ for written questions provides a different way for learners to be able to ask questions

74 4. How do you involve all learners in asking and answering questions?
Day 2 Session 3 – 4. How do you involve all learners in asking and answering questions? Consider asking questions such as: What do others think about _____’s idea? ‘Bounce’ the question around the classroom … How could you develop ______’s answer to include more detail? Then ask the learner who gave the original idea … How can you combine all you have heard into a single answer?

75 5. How do you encourage learners to ask and answer questions?
Day 2 Session 3 – 5. How do you encourage learners to ask and answer questions? Incorrect answers Use incorrect answers as a discussion point This creates a classroom atmosphere in which it is okay to give an incorrect answer, and also encourages a ‘have a go’ attitude! That’s not quite right … let’s talk about it …

76 5. How do you encourage learners to ask and answer questions?
Day 2 Session 3 – 5. How do you encourage learners to ask and answer questions? Wait-time Allow learners time to think: Teacher speaks and then waits before taking learners’ responses When learner’s response ends, teacher waits before responding This gives learners time to give a better answer or for another learner to respond Allow a minimum of 5 seconds

77 6. How can you make your questioning effective?
Day 2 Session 3 – 6. How can you make your questioning effective? Plan questions in advance – this can make them more challenging Focus on a few carefully constructed open-ended questions Ask one question at a time Allow thinking time Vary question strategies Ensure all learners have the opportunity to respond Use this slide to summarise the session

78 Day 2 Session 3 – Engaging starters for learners
Video clips Photographs Film clips Objects Cartoons Pieces of music Questions Games Puzzles

79 End of Session 3

80 Day 2 Session 4 – Learning environments: objectives
To know what an effective learning environment should be like To explore possibilities for display as a learning tool To understand how to create and develop an interactive learning environment

81 Day 2 Session 4 – Your classroom plan
Pairs How does your classroom enhance opportunities for learning? Does your classroom need to be different for you to be able to deliver the updated Kazakhstan curriculum? How would it be organised? What needs to be included?

82 Day 2 Session 4 – Classroom 1
What do you like or dislike about this classroom? Would this classroom work well for the updated curriculum?

83 Day 2 Session 4 – Classroom 2
What do you like or dislike about this classroom? Would this classroom work well for the updated curriculum?

84 Day 2 Session 4 – Classroom 3
What do you like or dislike about this classroom? Would this classroom work well for the updated curriculum?

85 Day 2 Session 4 – Classroom 4
What do you like or dislike about this classroom? Would this classroom work well for the updated curriculum?

86 Day 2 Plenary Review of Day 2
Preview of Day 3: Key approaches in the updated curriculum Criteria-based assessment model Cross-curricular themes Managing active learners Effective questioning

87 Day 3 Criteria-based Assessment

88 Day 3 Training objectives
To introduce key assessment principles To introduce the purpose of the criteria-based assessment model To introduce Formative Assessment To consider how to use the results of Formative Assessment in your teaching To introduce Internal Summative Assessment To consider how to ensure learners are prepared for Internal Summative Assessment and how to use the results To discuss how CBA will impact on your teaching practice

89 Day 3 Overview Session 1 Principles of assessment Session 2
The Criteria-based Assessment model (CBA) Session 3 Formative Assessment Session 4 Internal Summative Assessment Resources

90 Day 3 Session 1 – Principles of assessment: objectives
To understand: Different types of assessment Purposes of assessment What makes a good assessment

91 What is assessment? The process of gathering evidence
Then use defined criteria to judge performance based on the evidence Arrive at conclusion on performance Bring up slider header Ask participnats to answer the question ‘what is assessment?’ individually Share their answers with a partner Bring up the three bullet points one by one and explain this is a process.

92 Criteria-based Assessment
An assessment which is measured against common, defined criteria Common so all learners are judged to the same standard Defined so those assessing are clear what the standard is

93 Purposes of assessment
What purposes of assessment are you aware of? Why do we assess people? Who is involved in or affected by the assessment? Discuss

94 Purposes of assessment
university entrance progression at school qualification motivate selection monitoring institutions programme evaluation feedback quality assurance 94

95 Who is involved in, affected by or interested in assessment
Who is involved in, affected by or interested in assessment? Who are the stakeholders? Assessment

96 Learners Parents Schools School administration Employers Governmental decision-makers Society as a whole The public’s view of education and learners Any more ...?

97 Types of assessment Formative Summative Diagnostic
assessment of learners during teaching and learning Summative assessment of learning Diagnostic measures skills and knowledge to identify strengths and weaknesses

98 The Criteria-based Assessment Model
Guidance for Formative Assessment Test Specifications Activity: What are the differences between Formative and Internal Summative Assessment?

99 What makes a good assessment?
Assesses what it is intended to assess (e.g. maths test that doesn’t test their knowledge of English) Follows the subject programme – tests what they have learnt Tests what is appropriate for the subject Clear and comprehensible At the appropriate level Fits into the time available

100 Fit for purpose – four key concepts
V Validity R Reliability I Impact P Practicality

101 Ensuring validity The assessment should test what it is supposed to test Define what you want to test Produce clear specifications of what is to be assessed Ensure questions are fair Ensure marking/judgement making is accurate and reliable Seek feedback from learners and teachers

102 Ensuring reliability Assessment reflects the subject programme – and therefore what is being taught Assessment is set against fixed criteria which are documented to ensure standard is maintained Year on year assessment has the same outcomes Marking and judgement making – learner responses of the same quality should receive the same outcome – how to achieve that Test administration should ensure no malpractice

103 Impact This is the effect the test has on: Teachers and learners
Parents Teaching and learning Educational systems Society in general

104 Practicality Issues of: Cost (initial development and maintenance)
Management of the assessment Test length Ease/difficulty/cost of administration Ease of marking/judgement making

105 End of session 1

106 Day 3 Session 2 – The Criteria-based Assessment model: objectives
To understand: the principles and purpose of the Criteria-based Assessment model the structure of the Criteria-based Assessment model

107 Overview of the Criteria-based Assessment model (Primary)
Formative Assessment – ongoing Internal Summative Assessment – carried out at the end of each of the four terms. Not in Grade 1. End of term 4 only in Grade 2 but covering work from the whole year.

108 Overview of the Criteria-based Assessment model (Secondary)

109 The principles of the Criteria-based Assessment model
Learning is assessed against common, shared criteria Allows reliable, valid judgements to be made Results can be compared between different classes, subjects and schools Provides evidence of the development of subject knowledge and skills for every learner

110 Features of the model: Integration
Teaching Assessment Learning

111 Subject Programme Course Plans
Look at the example of Subject Progs and Course Plans in your workbook. What is the function of these documents and how do they differ?

112 Subject Programme Course Plans Assessment material
From these curriculum documents assessment material is developed which focuses on the specific content

113 Internal Summative Assessment
Subject Programme Course Plans Formative Assessment Internal Summative Assessment Assessment material From these curriculum documents assessment material is developed which focuses on the specific content

114 Internal Summative Assessment Assessment Guidance Documents
Subject Programme Course Plans Formative Assessment Internal Summative Assessment Assessment material From these curriculum documents assessment material is developed which focuses on the specific content Assessment Guidance Documents Test Specifications

115 Internal Summative Assessment Assessment Guidance Documents
Subject Programme Course Plans Formative Assessment Internal Summative Assessment Assessment material The content of both of these forms of assessment are therefore based on the SP and CPs – making it an integrated system. Assessment Guidance Documents Test Specifications

116 Features of the model: School-based
Schools are responsible for planning and implementing the assessments Formative Assessment (FA) – as part of normal teaching Internal Summative Assessment (ISA) – to check progress and learning at key points Teachers will be involved with the design and production of assessment material for both FA and ISA

117 Key skills for the 21st century
Discuss what skills are relevant for today’s learner Do you think learning factual knowledge alone is sufficient? Before bringing up the slide content ask parts to discuss:

118 Features of the model: 21st-century skills
Critical thinking Problem solving Independent learning Enquiry Information handling Feature of the model is that it aims to equip learners for life in 21st C Creating and designing Practical skills Collaboration

119 Criterion-referencing
Norm-referencing: compares a learner’s performance to the rest of the group either locally, nationally or internationally Criterion-referencing: compares a learner’s performance to a Learning Outcome or performance standard SO criterion-referenced assessment is where an individual’s performance is compared to a specific Learning Outcome or performance standard and not to the performance of other learners

120 ‘A criteria-based assessment model compares learners’ achievements with clearly defined, collectively developed criteria, which are known to all participants of the process in advance.’  

121 ‘Criteria-based assessment is fairer to learners than the traditional method applied in Kazakhstan.’ 

122 Summary – The purpose of the criteria-based assessment model
Diversify approaches Increase engagement and motivation Incorporate 21st century skills Develop teacher knowledge and skill Integrate modern techniques Inform planning Demonstrate progression

123 End of session 2

124 Day 3 Session 3 - Formative Assessment: aims
Identify evidence of achieving selected learning objectives (content and skills) Understand progress and needs of individual learners Inform teaching and learning Provide ongoing feedback for teachers and learners

125 Formative Assessment: terminology
Success criteria: These describe how the teacher can decide which learners have ‘achieved’ the learning objective and which learners are ‘working towards’ the learning objective. This advice should support teachers in using their professional judgement to make these decisions Assessment guidance: This is information to help teachers deliver Formative Assessment Skills: These describe the range of skills that the learner is developing (thinking skills and subject-specific skills)

126 Formative Assessment: part of everyday teaching
Learning objective (skills and content) Plan teaching and learning activities Active learning Course plan Have learners achieved the learning objective? Formative Assessment Assessment guidance and success criteria Inform planning Differentiation Deciding when to move on Feedback to learners Record results Achieved Working Towards

127 Formative Assessment: method
Assessments can use course plan activities or equivalent activities designed by the teacher Assessment guidance will help you decide how to collect evidence Success criteria will help you decide whether a learner has ‘achieved’ or is ‘working towards’ a learning objective Brief learners before the activity so they understand the task and the success criteria Collect evidence for portfolio (if appropriate)

128 Formative Assessment: Process
Refer to the Assessment Guidance for Primary Science Refer to the Primary Science Grade 1 Course Plan Arrange the learning objectives Produce a plan Each plan may be different for each teacher. So this process offers flexibility in what is taught and when. Handouts: assessment guidance and success criteria for the subject/grade. Requires cross-referencing between assessment guidance and course plan The suggested activities are in the course plan – teachers may adapt these The assessment guidance will help here – teachers may adapt this guidance if they are using different teaching approaches. Draw out that the evidence could be written, spoken, drawings, pictures etc. The teachers should refer to the success criteria. This links to the answers to (3). Make it clear portfolios should not contain every piece of work – only those that demonstrate progress. Portfolios can contain teacher observations.

129 Formative Assessment: using the assessments
Pairs Think again about your example of Formative Assessment. What would you do in each of these scenarios? A learner is ‘working towards’ the learning objective and does not understand why. Most of the class are ‘working towards’ the learning objective, but one learner has confidently ‘achieved’ it. Six learners are ‘working towards’ the learning objective and the rest of the class have ‘achieved’ it. .

130 End of session 3

131 Day 3 Session 4 – Internal Summative Assessment and Reporting results
To understand: the principles and purpose of Internal Summative Assessment how to report the results of Criteria-based Assessment to learners and parents how to prepare for Criteria-based Assessment

132 Internal Summative Assessment – aim and content
To provide evidence of achievement at the end of term Detailed information is in the ‘ISA test specification’ including: format of test length of test number of marks balance of questions against assessment objectives sample questions and mark schemes how to administer the test Task from MoE material – what goes in a Test Spec document?

133 Internal Summative Assessment - format
Format will be for the purpose of assessing subject reliably and with validity: Written tests – range of task types Speaking and Listening tests for languages Practical tests for sciences Activity tests for Art and other practical subjects For some subjects, the test specification may list allowable sources of information.

134 Overview of task types Multiple Choice
Other objective responses (e.g. matching, selected response) Short answer questions Extended response questions Essays Projects/Coursework Performance assessment Very structured Structured Unstructured Very unstructured 2.2 A broad list of task types shown here from the very structured, e.g. multiple choice – where there is only one expected response and the question is very focused, through to performance assessment, e.g. where a discussion might be observed to assess whether analytical skills have been mastered. These are extremes and there are other task types on a continuum between the two extremes.

135 Reliability Standardisation Marking (with monitoring)
This ensures that teachers mark to the same standard and apply the mark scheme consistently Marking (with monitoring) Teachers mark completed ISAs. This marking is monitored by the Subject Leader to ensure consistency. Checking and recording Teachers check that every answer has been marked, addition is correct and results have been recorded accurately Task here

136 Reporting Why do you report to parents?
What makes a useful or less useful report?

137

138 Feedback You will be asked to provide feedback on how learners performed on the test through their results and comments Do you currently provide feedback? What sort of comments do you provide? Do you find it difficult to write feedback?

139 “Teachers should be aware of the impact that comments, marks and grades can have on learners’ confidence and enthusiasm and should be as constructive as possible in the feedback that they give.” Assessment Reform Group, 2002

140 Effective feedback Specific Positive Negative Non-specific
It is common for teachers to mark all work that learners do in their lessons and for homework. This means that often marking concentrates on whether the work has been done, comments are made on presentation and spelling and often graded against no criteria or criteria that are not shared with learners. To improve learning, feedback comments should identify what has been done well and what still needs improvement, and give guidance on how to make that improvement. Opportunities for learners to follow up comments should be planned as part of the overall learning process. To be effective, feedback should cause thinking and learning to take place. Instead of marking every detail of every piece of work that learners complete, teachers decide upon the focus of a piece of work and share the marking criteria. An improvement target could be given as a question or small task for the learner to complete independently. Non-specific

141 Any questions?

142 End of session 4

143 Day 4 Delivering the updated curriculum: planning and resources

144 Day 4 Training objectives
To feel confident in the purpose of the updated curriculum and its content (subject programme and course plan) To feel confident in the features of medium- and short-term planning To begin to write an effective short-term plan To feel confident in using resources to support learners’ progress

145 Day 4 Overview Session 1 The updated curriculum: subject programme and course plans Session 2 Medium- and short-term planning Session 3 Medium- and short-term planning 2 Session 4 Resources

146 Day 4 Session 1 – The updated curriculum: subject programme and course plans – overview
Subject-specific information in subject programme Strands in subject programme Links between course plans and subject programmes Review of the day Training objective To feel confident in the purpose of the updated curriculum and its content (subject programme and course plan)

147 Day 4 Session 1 – Subject programme contents (1)
Part 1: General information 1.1 The importance of the subject in the curriculum 1.2 The aims of the subject programme 1.3 Implementation of the trilingual policy 1.4 Description of the organisational requirements for the subject 1.5 Pedagogic approaches for the subject

148 Day 4 Session 1 – Subject programme contents (2)
Part 1: General information (continued) 1.6 Developing respect for diversity of culture and opinion in the subject 1.7 Competence in the use of digital technologies in the subject 1.8 Developing communication skills in the subject 1.9 Approaches to assessment in the subject Part 2: Content 2.1 Subject programme content, organisation and progression

149 Day 4 Session 1 – Subject programme: subject-specific content
Pairs Choose a section in the contents page What subject-specific information do you think it contains? Write a list Compare with what is actually in the section

150 Day 4 Session 1 – Subject programme: strands
How is learning organised in your subject? What are the ‘strands’? Are they logical to you? Remember: The updated curriculum is a spiral curriculum How will this affect how the strands and learning objectives are taught?

151 Day 4 Session 1 – Course plans: sections
Long-term plan Introduction to language objectives Medium-term plan Short-term lesson plan

152 End of session 1

153 Day 4 Session 2 – Medium- and short-term planning (1): objective
To feel confident in the features of medium- and short-term planning

154 Day 4 Session 2 – Features of planning
Groups Discuss the main uses and features of each level of planning Long Medium Short

155 Day 4 Session 2 – An outline lesson plan
Learning objectives Outcomes Plan Additional information

156 End of session 2

157 Day 4 Session 3 – Medium- and short-term planning (2): objective
To begin to be able to write an effective short term plan

158 Day 4 Session 3 – Writing a short-term plan
Pairs Choose a learning objective from the course plans. Write a short-term plan Pairs of pairs Evaluate each other’s plans What is different about this new process of lesson planning?

159 End of Session 3

160 Day 4 Session 4 – Resources: objective
To feel confident in using resources to support learners’ progress

161 Day 4 Session 4 – Evaluating the course plan resources
Individually Choose a course plan activity. Are there any resources that might be difficult for teachers? Think about alternative/additional resources for the activity Pairs, then whole group Share your ideas

162 End of Session 4

163 Day 5 Perspectives on language, skills and thinking within the curriculum

164 Session 1: Perspectives on the teaching and learning of vocabulary within the curriculum

165 Questions relating to issues covered in this session ?
What does it mean when we say we know a word ? How many words should be taught at a time ? How, when and where should learners record words ? What type of activities make new words more memorable? How can we get learners to explore and use words meaningfully?

166 Seeing Knowing Using Keeping
Vocabulary learning Seeing Knowing Using Keeping WORDS

167 Vocabulary: significant numbers

168 Numbers : Answers approximately 80% of all written and spoken communication consists of this number of words we should not teach more than this number of words at a time as this is all we can cope with in short-term memory this is the approximate number of words in an Advanced Learners’ Dictionary this is the number of words an average educated native-speaker knows this is the estimated number of times you need to see/hear/meet a word in different contexts before it becomes part of your competence this is roughly the maximum number of words a second language learner can learn in a year – the average number would be much lower this represents the number of words someone around high B1 – low B2 competence knows.

169 Knowing words from English Profile Cambridge English Language Assessment

170 Lexical progression TAKE (tr.) P Take a book E Take a bus F Take part
E Take a deep breath E Take this matter further E Take a keen interest E Take a picture E Take an exam E Take a nap E Take a chance E Take thing seriously F Take care F take place

171 pay: all verbs From English Profile Cambridge English Language Assessment

172 Moving from… What When How… (a bit more about knowing)

173 Lexico-grammatical knowledge
Depth of knowledge phonetic and orthographic dimensions main meanings main contexts of use syntactic properties underlying form and derivatives network of associations with other words connotations.

174 Before or after you pay quote C bill A2 refund B1 discount A2 tip B1 loan B1 receipt A2 deposit B1 change B1 Look at these questions and comments. Each one contains a phrasal verb connected with payment or money. Which of the words above is being referred to by each speaker? How much did you get back? B1 You can’t take it back without one. B1 When do you have to pay it back? B1

175 Vocabulary Activities : Learning objectives and course plans
Dear Steve, Well, I’ve packed my belongings and I’m just about reading to depart. I had this long list of things to attend to before going, but everything will just have to wait until I return. I think you possess the phone number of the place where I’ll be residing for the next few weeks, so communicate by phone if there are any problems. It was warm-hearted of you to offer to look after the dogs while I am absent but they are used to the kennels so I don’t object to them going there. Hand-out 1

176 Content focus : ‘scaffolding’ words
What is the language focus of this activity ? Mnemonics / Schematics / Pragmatics Match a word from the left column to make a collocation related to the idea of research A B to present research to carry out analysis to do data to conduct an investigation to collect findings to draw evidence to analyse a conclusion Significant a problem to report to identify Now put these phrases in the correct place on the timeline of an investigation below How many words does it focus on? How should learners be encouraged to record words in this task? At what stage of a lesson [receptive/ productive skills] would this task be used?

177 The Spiral Curriculum and Vocabulary
Revisiting Recasting change of mode ..can present more challenging and creative pathways through review processes main meanings syntactic properties Reformulation A learner’s ability to process and produce ‘relexicalisations’ in speech and writing is critical to success in all skills strands of a communicative curriculum and tasks based around reformulation should feature prominently in review processes

178 Vocabulary Activities Hand-out 2
As you work through the activities in the hand-out, consider the questions we began the session with. What does it mean when we say we know a word ? How many words should be taught at a time ? How, when and where should learners record words ? What type of activities make new words more memorable? How can we get learners to explore and use words meaningfully?

179 Session 2: The role of content and context within the curriculum

180 Questions relating to issues in this session
How is information technology impacting on language teaching and learning ? How does what learners need to do with language today differ from 20 years ago ? What sort of contexts and tasks does the English curriculum use for presenting content ? What kind of transition might there be in the type of language skills focuses between the Primary and Secondary curriculum ?

181 Technology is only technology to those who were born before it.
We have moved from “know what” learning to “know where” learning. Digital Media enables us to build more stages for our kids to express themselves. Marco Torres Learners can not rely solely on left-brain skills for success in the 21st century. They also need to design innovations, communicate through compelling stories, develop rapport with others, and synthesize seemingly disconnected information in new ways. Daniel Pink

182 21st century skills enquiry problem solving critical thinking
independent learning collaboration information handling creating and designing practical skills

183 Follow one of these threads through the Grade 10 course plan
Curriculum threads W C UE11 R S3 L1 Follow one of these threads through the Grade 10 course plan

184 Primary Learner Secondary Learner
Learners experiment with language using English in pairs, groups and whole-class discussions in a variety of informal and semi-formal situations. They develop the ability to ask questions to explore their own ideas and thoughts, to give and understand instructions, to describe and understand descriptions of people and objects, and to narrate and understand narration of events. The range of skills learners acquire is broadened by focusing on higher level skills such as reasoning, developing arguments, analysing and evaluating and the curriculum widens the range of application of these skills by equipping learners to use English to access and discuss non-language subjects.

185 The language necessary to understand and discuss content in school.
BICS and CALP BICS = Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills CALP = Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency The language necessary for day-to-day living, conversations with friends and family, informal interactions. The language necessary to understand and discuss content in school.

186 Context and cognition undemanding embedded reduced demanding

187 context embedded and cognitively undemanding
Context and cognition undemanding A= context embedded and cognitively undemanding embedded reduced demanding

188 Context and cognition undemanding embedded reduced demanding
Talking with friends Buying lunch Playing sports embedded reduced demanding

189 context embedded and cognitively demanding
Context and cognition undemanding embedded B= context embedded and cognitively demanding reduced demanding

190 Context and cognition undemanding embedded reduced demanding
Demonstrations Science experiments Lessons with AV reduced demanding

191 context reduced and cognitively undemanding
Context and cognition undemanding C= context reduced and cognitively undemanding embedded reduced demanding

192 Context and cognition undemanding embedded reduced demanding
Telephone conversations Friend’s shopping list Written instructions embedded reduced demanding

193 context reduced and cognitively demanding
Context and cognition undemanding reduced embedded D= context reduced and cognitively demanding demanding

194 Context and cognition undemanding reduced embedded demanding
Reading and writing Standardized tests Most content classes demanding

195 Content Objectives Grade 10 10.1B Communication and Technology
10.C3 respect differing points of view 10.C7 develop and sustain a consistent argument when speaking or writing 10.C10 use talk or writing as a means of reflecting on and exploring a range of perspectives on the world As you review the materials in hand-out 3 think about our question:  What sort of contexts and tasks does the English curriculum use for presenting content ?

196 Adapting materials Bridging Making objectives meet requirements
Matching purpose Maximising appropriacy Looking for ‘congruence’. McDonough and Shaw 2003

197 Session 3: The development of higher order thinking skills and cultural awareness in the curriculum

198 Questions for this session
What kind of cognitive activity do we typically associate with learning languages ? What do we classify as lower order and higher order thinking skills ? How does involving higher order thinking skills in language learning benefit learners ? What higher order thinking tasks types blend well with the aims of the communicative language classroom?

199 Bloom’s Taxonomy [hierarchy of the cognitive domain]

200 Approximate mapping of 21st century skills onto Anderson and Krathwohl’s revised [2001] hierarchy of Bloom’s cognitive domain Critical Thinking Problem-solving Decision-making Creativity and Innovation Information Literacy 21st century skills outside Bloom’s cognitive domain Life and career Learning to learn , meta-cognition Citizenship Personal and social responsibility Communication Collaboration ICT Literacy 21st Century skills: Ancient, ubiquitous, enigmatic? Cambridge Assessment 2013

201 Who was the key character...?
What differences exist between...? Can you provide an example of what you mean...? How is ... similar to...? What are some of the problems of...? What were some of the motives behind...? What factors would you change if...? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions for ..? What happened after...? How many...? Who was it that...? Which is true or false...? Is there a better solution to...? Judge the value of... Do you think ... is a good or a bad thing? Can you design a ... to ...? Make a moving vehicle which .. If you had access to all resources how would you deal with...?

202 Weaving these dimensions within our everyday tasks
Teach skills through real-world contexts Vary the context in which learners use a newly-taught skill Emphasise the building blocks of higher-order thinking Build background knowledge Classify things in categories Arrange items along dimensions Make hypotheses Draw inferences Analyse things into their components Solve problems Encourage learners to think about the thinking strategies they are using

203 Guess the Google As you play Guess the Google, think about which high order thinking skills you are using.

204 Creative use of graphic organisers
Critical Thinking Problem-solving Decision-making

205 Ranking On a scale of plot M [me] MP [my parents] MGP [my grandparents] Likely to receive an SMS from friends before lunchtime 1 _________________________________10 Not likely to vote in local elections 1 ___________________________ 10 Likely to spend two hours in front of TV a day 1 ____________________________10 Now use internet sources to plot where the average Kazakh family would be.

206 Digitally Native or Naïve
As much as we may marvel at learners dexterity/intuition with ICT, they still need their content/ information skills harnessed - advanced searching skills [linguistic processes] - questioning of sources [text awareness] - questioning of validity [interpretation/judgement] - comprehension skills [different reading processes] - utilisation [avoiding plagiarism/21st century skills]

207 Implications for formative and summative assessment
. Implications for formative and summative assessment Objective Number of Items at Level I   (Bloom's Taxonomy) Number of Items at Level II   (Blooms' Taxonomy) 1 2 3 4

208 Superlative Imposter [What’s the task mechanism ?]
SIZE : Lake Michigan the Pacific Ocean the River Nile the Caspian Sea NUMBER OF PEOPLE : Mexico City China English Chinese SIZE: Mount Everest Jupiter the Sahara the Empire State Building ANIMALS : leopard ostrich great white shark giraffe Collaboration

209 Homophones Homophone Healing flower red poor fair presents poll
week piece mail roll

210 Critical Thinking Problem-solving
ROYAL BEHAVIOUR Task mechanism : active listening, in collective resolution of a problem Sultan Mustapha III of the Ottoman Empire had 564 children all of them boys King Pepi II of Egypt always kept slaves around him that were covered in honey Queen Catherine the Great of Russia kept her hairdresser in an iron cage for three years. James Duke of Monmouth [ ] who was beheaded after he tried to become king had his head sewn back on after his death King John of England [reigned ] employed someone to hold his head [the royal head holder] whenever he went to sea. Critical Thinking Problem-solving Decision-making Collaboration

211 Our initial question : With another teacher, make a quick list of the names of task types you have seen that meet this objective, and could be used creatively and flexibly across the curriculum. What higher order thinking task types blend well with the aims of the communicative language classroom?

212 Session 4: Microteaching: focusing on learner-centred activity

213 What type of learner activity was going on in each micro-teaching slot ?
How is ... similar to...? What are some of the problems of...? What were some of the motives behind...? Who was the key character...? What differences exist between...? Can you provide an example of what you mean...? What factors would you change if...? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions for ..? What happened after...? How many...? Who was it that...? Which is true or false...? Is there a better solution to...? Judge the value of... Do you think ... is a good or a bad thing? Can you design a ... to ...? Make a moving vehicle which .. If you had access to all resources how would you deal with...?

214 Day 6 Modelling primary classroom language: primary listening and speaking skills

215 Teacher Modified Language and Comprehensible Input Strategies
Day 6 Session 1 Teacher Modified Language and Comprehensible Input Strategies

216 Questions related to key issues this session will address
Why is spoken input so important in Primary language learning? How can teachers modify input, instructions to make them comprehensible? What type of talk activities are most likely to engage young learners? What does an ‘English only’ classroom look like ?

217 The core approach in the curriculum is:
co-opting the learner into the process of making English the medium as well as the goal of all their learning… …which means co-opting teachers into this too.

218 L1 early oral development
Input [CDS] Output semantically contingent contextualised language routines recasts optimum opportunity to try out opportunity to work out (comprehensible output) evolving interlanguage lexicalisation grammaticisation relexicalisation

219 L2 early oral phase ‘silent period’ pre-school L2 teaching
for ‘carer’ substitute ‘teacher’ for ‘contextualised routines’ substitute ‘class routines’ for ‘CDS’ substitute ‘TML’ instinctive appeal of methods like TPR success of high energy, non-threatening output/feedback classrooms. All contribute to exposure to sounds and the development of phonological processing.

220 ‘whole child’ talk utilise the experiences, knowledge and interests children bring to learning. make tasks meaningful, purposeful and fun think of an embedded rather than an explicit language focus make sense from the learner’s perspective add elements of performance display outcomes.

221 Sample activity: Hand shadow shapes

222 Teacher talk ‘contextualised language’
language contingent on gesture, picture and action support of ‘class routines’ ‘Teacher Modified Language’ (TML) appeal of methods like TPR positive reinforcement stop to be silly power of song and movement.

223 What learners should be able to do in English
Learning outcomes are framed as a progressive can-do sequence. This encourages the use of learner-centred, activity-based approaches by teachers in the implementation of the curriculum.

224 Just a few of the input opportunities a medium like YouTube represents:
wrap a present learn a dance step sing along how to sign do magic make projected puppet shapes draw cartoon characters learn card tricks make a Chinese lantern that will fly.

225 Methodological implications
Learning: high-quality interaction with the teacher as facilitator of language development, encouraging active use. Interactive full class teaching: challenging and careful use of questioning, elicitation and positive reinforcement. Pair and group work: high levels of participation and language use.

226 Look at the questions we began this session with
Why is spoken input so important in Primary Language learning? How can teachers modify input, instructions to make them comprehensible? What type of talk activities are most likely to engage young learners? What does an ‘English only’ classroom look like ? Rank them according to which you can answer in the fullest detail.

227 Session 2: Modelling, eliciting, drilling and recasting techniques

228 Questions to consider during this session.
When and how do we correct learner spoken language in the Primary classroom? What is the place of choral drilling and how can we vary such activity? How can we vary interaction patterns? What procedures and criteria might we use to begin to assess early learner output?

229 Effective questioning and eliciting techniques
Same or different Odd-one-out Ranking What’s missing? What would you ask? If the answer is…what is the question?

230 Wait-time Sufficient ‘wait-time’ is needed after the question for learners to c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the question f _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ an answer p _ _ _ _ _ _ language r _ _ _ _ _ _. Wait-time before nominating and after the initial response encourages longer _______ ______ from the learners self-_________ level of learner _______.

231 Recasting techniques Positive reinforcement Finger correction
Correction images/symbols/spaces Recasting Avoid echoing

232 Drilling Energise and focus Model Chorus drill Highlight
Individual drill Pair/group drill Chorus reprise Back-chaining, change emotions, change accents

233 Pair and group work gives learners more speaking time
changes the pace of the lesson spotlight off you and onto the learner mix with everyone in the group sense of achievement when reaching a team goal leading and being led by someone [not teacher] teacher monitors, moves and listens to learners’ language enhances sense of challenge, performance and can-do. Think: seating, change of scene, group dynamics

234 Session 3: Types of listening inputs and tasks

235 Questions related to issues in this session include
What types of listening activity are particularly engaging for Primary learners? How often is information in tasks repeated? What role do songs play in early language learning? What tasks might be effectively used for assessing early Listening?

236 Early listening input formats
Instructions Direct questions Teacher gives learners worksheet with animal outlines to colour. Learners listen and colour animals according to teacher instructions. e.g. Colour the monkey blue and red. That’s right. The monkey is blue and red. Learners are given worksheets with numbers 1 to 10 written on and options y/n (for yes/no). Teacher reads out ten questions. e.g. Do cats like milk? Do cows eat eggs ?

237 Early listening input formats
Listen and do Listen and identify Listening and putting objects on and colouring different parts of a getting to school transport scene card. e.g. Write number 10 on the bus. Colour the bike blue. Put the cat in the car. Learners given worksheet and tick the correct option of three according to teacher’s descriptions. e.g. There are two black cats under a chair.

238 Scene-cards

239

240

241 Song techniques with young children
Movement and songs Drama scenarios in songs Motivational song techniques

242 Motivational techniques
Musical chairs Freeze Remote control Louder louder Hotter or colder Join in Singing roles Substitution: straight face Our song Lucky dip Who has it ? Spotlight Lip syncing Shadow dancing

243 Listening input/output challenges and grading
length of text language in text sentence length number of distractors picture support language needed for answers

244 Now I can….. (can-do checklists)
…follow instructions …spell out my name …count to twenty …ask ‘Who..’ questions …say what shape it is …name the colours of the rainbow …sing the birthday song …describe my room.

245 Returning to our question …
What types of listening activity are particularly engaging for Primary learners? Make a list with another teacher.

246 Session 4: Classroom speaking dynamics and activities

247 Questions relating to issues in this session
How do we get early Primary learners to speak in English and English only ? What are the implications for classroom seating and management? Do certain task dynamics produce more speech output? How do we assess and what do we assess in early learner speech ?

248 Primary teacher toolkit
visuals gesture instructional (semantically contingent) language L1 cognates songs and rhymes in school/out of school environment: international words/names/symbols/shapes/numbers positive reinforcement (recasts, not corrections/echoes) easily identifiable formats: gaming, puzzles, riddles, jokes, spot the difference, odd-one-out.

249 Sample activity: How to tie … races
shoe laces pig-tails knots a balloon a bow a tie a blind fold

250 Combining Listening and Speaking
Watch, Listen, Make, Decorate and Fly a paper plane

251 Assessing primary speaking
Teacher Learner Sets the scene and ______ action _______ to items in a scene picture _______ cards while talking _______ an object card in a group of cards by _______ Gives example and _____ task _______ object cards to places in a scene picture Asks _____ questions Asks closed _______ questions _______ about things in a scene picture Asks questions and ____ learner wait-time Answering questions about ________ object cards ________ to learner that focus of questions has changed Answering personalized questions _________ to object cards _________ clear eye contact with learner Answering personal questions without __________

252 Speaking assessment criteria
Reception Pronunciation Production: promptness and size of response Watch and assess :

253 Now discuss our initial question :
Do certain task dynamics produce more speech output?

254 Day 7 Early literacy techniques: primary reading and writing skills

255 Session 1: Developing awareness of the English code

256 Questions related to this session
What is ‘alphabet’ knowledge and how might this impact on early literacy ? What are some of the barriers to early effective L2 [English code] literacy for children ? What are effective approaches for helping children to decode ? What does multi-sensory classroom Reading look like?

257 Quick quiz How many sounds are there in English ?
How many characters are there in the English alphabet? How many consonant clusters are there in English? How many consonant clusters can occur both at the beginning and end of English words? What is a digraph? Why have UPPER CASE letters increased in importance in the last few years?

258 Grade 1 early literacy issues
Why teach the alphabet? When should you teach the alphabet? What can cause confusion with alphabet teaching? Can we teach English spelling/decoding systematically?

259 a e i o u b d t p m g c f h Sounding and sound pictures

260 Spot check: sound / i : / Frequency me beach tree key tree me key pony

261 Spot check: sound / k : / Frequency cat kitten duck kitten duck queen
school queen duck kitten queen school cat

262 sun dress horse city ice
We can represent this knowledge as: For sound / s / sun dress horse city ice sound picture chart - THRASS chart

263 Early literacy sequence
introduce most common sound pictures first. single letter consonant pictures b p t d l m and most frequent single letter vowel pictures a e i o move to consonant blends: st br move to digraphs: sh ch move to split vowel digraphs: m a d e r i d e move to proper vowel digraphs: r ai n make learners aware of initial, mid- and final position sound picture potential: st o p l o st present variation: dog egg present overlap: snow now Mid-Primary Higher Primary

264 These skills are reversible: they work for both reading and spelling.
Key skills Blending: Blend sound pictures (letters) to make words h o t t r y Segmenting: Segment words in to sound pictures th / a / t l / igh / t Phoneme manipulation: Manipulate sounds in and out of words. __ a p c a __ These skills are reversible: they work for both reading and spelling.

265 Phono graphix Four principles
English is a sound to grapheme code: think sound pictures: t g Some sound pictures are represented by more than one letter: ch sh ae There is variation in the code - some sounds are represented by more than one sound picture: g gh gg There is overlap in the code - some sound pictures represent more than sound: h ea t gr ea t

266 Following a phonographic approach means:
you teach sound - sound picture relationships in a certain order you teach encoding and decoding at the same time key skills are reversible you reject the idea of ‘silent letters’, ‘exceptions to rules’ you may well complement with a sight word approach.

267 Sight-words: may be kept in a different place

268 Skills framework sounds and sound pictures motor skills names
sight words/environment words be multi-sensory: hear look say touch move write letter patterns and spelling integrate with wider listening and speaking work following stories being read (whole books)

269 Let’s return to our question
What are effective approaches for helping children to decode ? Discuss with another teacher what these terms mean : sound picture blending sounding encoding segmenting sight-word phoneme manipulation digraph

270 Session 2: Handwriting, spelling and decoding: potential learner problems

271 Questions to consider in this session
What do we consider as early motor skills in learning to write? How can we make strong connections between decoding and encoding [spelling]? Can we help learners to visualise spellings ? If we took your learners to a spelling clinic what words would be their common complaints ?

272 y

273 English spelling is polysystemic
phonological graphemic etymological morphological lexical

274 Split digraph: magic ‘e’ (incredibly wide-ranging)
Tim - time mad made us use Sam - same not note hat hate

275 Almost all top 100 words come from ‘Old English’ roots
wh- kn gh – igh –aw –ow are all Old English orthographical patterns.

276 Learning these common patterns
Learners who expect to -gh are less likely to –hg Learners have fewer strange patterns to learn when they start to see these patterns, e.g. start to chunk: th- sh- -ion Permits ‘silent letter’ approach when we know ‘k’ / ‘w’ at beginning of words used to be pronounced.

277 Link to sound picture approach
Opposites igh day low wrong loose heavy r l t h n

278 Pass the pattern ch ee ou ea st le ing es igh ck al tion

279 Spelling: graphemic knowledge
Possible ‘environment’ for letter strings Useful graphemic patterns which can help learners: syllables word length CVC doubling ‘illegal’ endings letters that don’t double -f / -ves

280 which bicycle Sticks and tails Key: Letters with sticks b d f h k l t
Letters with tails g j p q y In-line letters a c e i m n o r s u v w x z which bicycle

281 Visualising: p’s and b’s

282 Piaget ‘discovery’ get learners into the habit of ‘looking with intent’ point out that print is all around them take an interest in words as you read/ come across them (sounds like/looks like but.../word families) encourage learners to take mental photos of words/hold the image in their mind/break it down into ‘sound pictures’ get learners to write down words and see if it looks right air write words be multi-sensory: hear look say touch move sound write

283 Let’s return to our question
If we took your learners to a spelling clinic what words would be their common complaints ? Do any of these strategies help with the problems ? Word within a word Highlighting the problem phoneme Sticks and Tails [word shape] Pattern log Emotive Spelling Mnemonic recording

284 Session 3: Whole child early reading activities

285 Questions related to issues in this session
How do we make L2 literacy relate to aspects of the child’s world? What key approaches and resources are similar to L1 literacy situation? What type of practical reading outcomes engage children? What types of tasks can be used for assessing early reading ability?

286 Whole child emotional needs engaging with environment
emergent literacies and languages (tri-lingual aims) cognitive abilities citizenship emergent cultural identity and understanding.

287 Literacy needs in English and beyond
Accessing content Topics studied for general and social purposes in English lessons. Aspects of curricular topics relating to the school domain. ICT also central as development of digital literacy and its integration with other emergent literacies is also an important aim.

288 Active learning: Broad task dimensions of early reading and writing tasks
integrated tasks whole books letter shapes word patterns picture dictionaries read and do write for display read and predict phonographix

289 Picture dictionary quest
Find the animal by looking in the dictionary. It begins with ‘c’. It lives on a farm. It has got four legs. It lives on a farm. It begins with ‘sh’. It ends in ‘p’. They live in the sea. They begin with ‘f’. They lay eggs. It’s a bird. It begins with ‘p’. It cannot fly.

290 Whole child: cognitive abilities, participation, sharing - reading and listening quiz
Can camels swim? How many legs has a spider got? Do snakes lay eggs? Can ducks fly? Does a chicken foot have three or four toes? Can frogs walk? Can chickens say “quack quack”? Do penguins lay eggs? Name two animals we get milk from? Can cows jump? How many legs has a frog got? Can you spell “bee”?

291 AfL - ‘Can do’ literacy ideas
Now I can: solve letter puzzles read and write my name read and make labels for display spell CVC words aloud read and make English signs use a picture dictionary read and point read and say what comes next read and follow picture stories

292 Returning to our question ….
What key approaches and resources are similar to L1 literacy situation? Make a list of terms for approaches you have heard about today that might have the most impact in your teaching situation

293 Session 4: Whole child early writing activities

294 What might the missing words in the questions be?
What type of activities should young L2 writers move on to after handwriting and m __ __ __ __ skill focuses? What are effective ways of getting learners to r __ __ __ __ __ words? What are typical early writing t __ __ __ types that are within the scope of younger learners? How can children e__ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ‘writing’ without using a pen or pencil?

295 ‘whole child’ emergent literacy
Draw a shape Write a letter Write the name of your favourite food techniques: back-writing/air-writing synchronicity

296 Multi-sensory writing techniques
back writing directional letter writing letter sticks and tails pattern within a word making string words completing CVC words look-say-cover-write-check rhyming words air writing sounding CVC words sight word gaming story prediction ascending/descending letters letter change dictation making string letters

297 look – say – cover – write – check template
Revise Copy and say the word What’s difficult? How to remember Word shape C O V E R h e c k

298 Typical early curriculum integrated writing focus
School The world around us [P] Give learners a blank diagram/floorplan of their school. Give learners different images, e.g. car park, hall, toilet, gym, office, classrooms, canteen or library to cut out and stick on their diagram according to school layout. [W] Walk learners around school to find and copy down names of different parts of school in English [P] Learners label their diagram with words they have found around school. [W] Get two learners to come to front of class and blindfold them and spin them round. Ask Where? questions about class/school, which learners respond to by pointing. Ask the class ‘Is Kim right?’ to elicit responses. [D] Teacher demonstrates different things signs can typically mean Here Danger Please Stop This way Don’t [P] Learners read different signs in English and say which one of above each one means. [W] or [P] Online interactive sign reading. Learners read signs and complete short sentences either as whole class to board or on computers. [P] Learners draw/make signs using guided templates to put around school/classroom. All signs placed on a wall and other learners say what they mean.

299 Returning to our question …
What are typical early writing text types that are within the scope of younger learners? Make a list of text types you think might be appropriate for Grades 1 – 4.

300 Day 8 Features of primary language classroom management

301 Session 1: Types of language classroom question and correction techniques

302 Questions relating to issues in this session?
Why are questions crucial in all learning ? What specific extra purpose do they serve in language classrooms? How can we categorise types of classroom question? What are crucial features in differentiating questions? How can Ts vary question interaction patterns? How and when do teachers correct answers?

303 Teachers typically ask between 300-400 questions per day
Questioning is crucial in: managing the class engaging students with content encouraging participation increasing understanding. promoting formative assessment. The quantity of questions asked needs to be considered in relation to: general time constraints keep teacher talking time to a minimum their effectiveness in maximising learner contributions.

304 EFL: Types of questions
display referential probing convergent concept procedural hypothetical divergent

305 Language teacher questions
convergent question hypothetical question probing question procedural question display question divergent question concept checking question referential question to move lesson stages/activities along to elicit a range of learner language to check learners have understood to explore learner answers further to focus on language meaning and forms to promote learner speculation to elicit a simple correct answer to elicit something the teacher does not know answer to.

306 Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Thinking time:
Consciously waiting for a learner or class to think through an answer (before you break the silence) e.g secs Provide time between setting the question and requiring an answer. Sometimes alerting learners to the approach and the time available to develop an answer. No hands questioning: Using the ‘no hands up’ rule Ref. AfL publication - Working Inside the Black Box. Learners aware that those required to give an answer, will be selected by the teacher. Teachers alert them to this as questions are asked. Linked to ‘thinking time’. Basketball questioning: Move questions and discussions between learners Teacher establishes movement of ideas and responses around the class. Builds on other learners’ ideas and comments. Accepts ‘half-formed’ ideas. NB not ‘ping-pong’ Conscripts and volunteers: Using a planned mix of ‘conscripts’ and ‘volunteers’ Teacher selects answers from those who volunteer an answer and an equal amount of those who do not.

307 Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Eavesdropping:
Deploying specific targeted questions Listen in to group discussions and target specific questions to groups and individuals. 5Ws: Modeling simple exploratory questions to gather information Teacher models the use of Who, What, Where, When and Why to set out a simple information gathering response based on the information provided. Signal questions: Providing signals to learners about the kind of answer that would best fit the question being asked. Teacher responds to learners attempt to answer, by signaling and guiding the answers. Seek a partial answer: In the context of asking difficult whole class questions, deliberately ask a learner who will provide only a partly formed answer, to promote collective engagement.

308 Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Phone a friend:
Removes stress to enable those who cannot answer to participate Those who cannot answer are allowed to nominate a fellow learner to suggest an answer on their behalf, but they still have to provide their own answer, perhaps building on this. Hot-seating: A learner is placed in the ‘hot-seat’ to take several questions from the class and teacher. Mantle of the expert: A learner wears the cloak of the expert to answer questions from the class. Preview: Previewing questions in advance Questions are shared/displayed before being asked, or the start of the lesson. Pair rehearsal: of an answer or a question Pairs of learners are able to discuss and agree responses to questions together.

309 Error Correction Correction symbols Some teachers use prompts for correction while speaking. Some well-known examples are: Make a ‘T’ with fingers to illustrate missing ‘the’. Show a small word missing by holding thumb and forefinger close together. Cross hands over to show wrong word order. … can you add to this list.

310 Returning to our question…
How can we categorise types of classroom question? Give a concrete example to another teacher of the different types of language classroom question we have seen this session.

311 Session 2: Using story input

312 Questions relating to issues in this session
Why do young learners find stories so engaging? How can features of stories be exploited pre-,while- and post-listening/reading? How can Ts modify language when storytelling? What’s the impact of accompanying story listening with viewing?

313 Tiddler ‘story’ [W] Listening to an animal story with illustrations e.g. ‘Tiddler’. Teacher reads the story modified to class language level. [I] Listening to instructions for drawing, making and decorating different fish. [P] Writing captions (bubbles) of things learners remember from the story or fish might say.

314 Key class phases in story activity
Pre: pre-teaching/eliciting vocabulary introducing characters story-telling setting: mat, props, hats, puppets, signs, etc. While: images, animation, reinforcing language listening and reading along audience participation/pantomime Post: character empathy/voice consolidation consolidating language drama, craft, display

315 Bike stories: Curious George and other bikes
[W] Learners turn illustrations of a bike story ‘My new bike’ and suggest language for each picture. [D] Teacher introduces some key words from the story: curious surprise animal show newspaper [W] Whole class watches animation ‘Curious George rides his bike’ and listen to teacher tell story.   [P] Learners work in pairs and make up and write captions for different sequences in the story. [W] Teacher tells the story with animation again and learners shout out captions i.e. what ‘Curious George’ says/is thinking. [W] Learners write out a selection of captions for a class story display.

316 Returning to our question
How can Ts modify language when storytelling? Discuss with another delegate features that made the stories we heard accessible to learners.

317 Session 3: Craft activities and display

318 Questions related to issues in the session
What are the different learning style/mode preferences typically exhibited by learners? How can teachers effectively address these in activities? What type of language does performing craft activities particularly involve. What purposes can organised classroom display serve?

319 Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Learning styles are simply different preferences in the ways of learning. If teachers develop their teaching styles and provide a variety of tasks in these different styles, learning will become more effective and efficient. Mongolian translators: this slide needs translating

320 Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Audio learners like teachers that: use role plays as part of their teaching encourage classroom discussions encourage learners to work in groups give time for learners to ask questions include reading passages aloud in their teaching makes learners recall facts by reciting things – rhymes, mnemonics, etc. do not need absolute silence in the classroom. Mongolian translators: this slide needs translating

321 Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Visual learners like teachers that: use pictures and videos draw on the board ask learners to visualise a scene, or successful outcome gives learners time to sketch out ideas or to take notes encourages use of coloured pens likes to have a colourful classroom. Mongolian translators: this slide needs translating

322 Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Kinaesthetic learners like teachers that: encourage good note-taking (when watching videos, listening to explanations or going through examples) use activities that include moving around the classroom use sticky-notes and flash cards for noting and sorting ideas encourage learning by doing, not just sitting. Mongolian translators: this slide needs translating

323 What’s in a task? Look at the activities. Sort them according to which ones would appeal more to: visual learners auditory learners kinaesthetic learners

324 Making finger/potato/hand puppets
a simple hand [bag] puppet

325 Making a traditional hat

326 Display Display as stimulus - designed to arouse interest in a particular concept or theme; cross-curricular links, develop aesthetic sense Display as information - designed to inform; provide reinforcement; act as resource, prompt Display as celebration - designed to present children's work to a wider audience. validate work, sense of community, achievement and respect

327 Key elements in display
imagination: think big and out of the box effort: think planning and resourcing structure: think background, focus, visibility organisation: think timing and process Refresh, update and move on.

328 Primary Display Internet inspiration
Find ‘display’ images from real classrooms that might be used to inspire teachers related to these actual displays in the curriculum Spring in Kazakhstan Underwater ocean scene Puppet/mobile displays Classroom rules/signs display

329 Returning to our earlier questions
What was the main motivational ‘purpose’ behind each display found on the internet ? What type of language did our craft activities typically involve.

330 Session 4: Cross-curricular learning

331 Questions related to this session
Why use content/activities from other subjects ? Can curricular concepts be taught in English? What are some ways in which we can teach collaboratively? What additional steps are involved in cross-curricular lessons?

332 Collaborative teaching

333 Science [P] Listening to instructions for cutting out, vehicle outlines, making body of vehicle and showing how many people are inside. [P] Visiting teacher’s moving parts shop and requesting the things needed to make rest of vehicle.  [P] Writing out labels in the form of flags for to put on learner vehicles, e.g. Tom and Tina’s tractor. [W] Saying where your vehicle can get to (vehicles rolled down a gentle slope and along a flat surface). Rest of class asked: Can it?

334 Cross-curricular primary tasks
Maths Art and Design Listening, measuring and completing a graph about how long learner’s step is. Activity framework, worksheet and graph template : [I] Watching a demonstration and following instructions on how to wrap present. Silent video presentation which teacher pauses and prompts with language. [I] [f] Listening to instructions to make decorations to stick on wrapped presents e.g. Draw a star. Colour the star purple. Now give instructions for display.

335 Simple Maths/Science focuses within the English Curriculum
Halving and doubling bingo Sink or swim Making representations from shapes

336 Returning to our question
Why use content/activities from other subjects ? Make a list of reasons with another teacher.

337 Day 9 Developing learner language awareness and Use of English secondary classroom strategies

338 Session 1: Language awareness skills and curriculum learning objectives

339 Questions related to issues in this session
How can L1 knowledge be effectively used/harnessed in developing L2? Are most errors related to L1 interference? What are the areas of ‘grammar’ knowledge different activities might combine/explore ? How can we deepen understanding of language points across a course / across grades ?

340 Language awareness Discuss these contrasts in your own first language
I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses.  I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses.  I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses.  I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses.  I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses. I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses.  I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses.  I asked you to buy me a bunch of white roses.  John didn't ask. I asked. I didn't demand it. I asked it. I didn't ask your secretary. I asked you. I didn't ask you to steal the flowers. I asked you to buy them. I didn't ask you to buy the flowers for your mother. I asked you to buy them for me I didn't ask you to by me one white rose. I asked you to buy me a bunch of them. I didn't ask you to buy me a bunch of red roses. I asked you to buy me white roses I didn't ask you to buy me white lilies. I asked you to buy me white roses

341 What role L1 plays in the L2 awareness process
Research has shown that ‘targeted’ vocabulary work is effective for acquiring vocabulary…particularly in areas like cognate mapping and cognate adjustment. This can lead to teaching focuses based around: common errors false friends different forms of componential analysis

342 balloon fabric brilliant
Russian false friends data alley chef camera decade actual balloon fabric brilliant carton accurate band

343 L1 cognates Discovering cognates between L1/L2 and L3 is part of competence. Comparison and contrast between L1/L2 and L3 is often a point of departure towards grasp of a form and deepening of understanding of meanings and connotations

344 Vocabulary and grammars
Addressing where the learner is at. Difficulty could be: L1 / L2 difference L1/ L2 close approximation L2 / L2 distinction L2 / L2 conflation

345 Semantic/syntactic componential analysis
Time [what are some of the issues here] a just with English b when compared to your language find pass waste fly have make spend drag go take A took B went C flew D passed Write sentences for which only one of the four will be correct.

346 Common ‘re-’ words used when talking about language curricular and progression
revisit recast reformulate reinforce revise review recycle

347 MEMORY GAME : Remembering and processing what was said
wish: request: promise: apology: a piece of advice: something outrageous: What different ‘language points’ might this activity practise. What

348 Revisiting Recasting Change of mode. Can present more challenging and creative pathways through review processes. main meanings syntactic properties

349 Importance of reformulation
A learner’s ability to process and produce ‘relexicalisations’ in speech and writing is critical to success in all skills strands of a communicative curriculum, and tasks based around reformulation should feature prominently in review processes.

350 Grammar teaching/activity focus
Grammar Focuses function form notion meaning context and register uses

351 lately? Example: Has he phoned his mother this week? already?
What levels of knowledge does this activity involve ? all year all week before New Year during the party the other day before in July lately recently already after ever just a few times last still this week never once for ages Find three words in a row [horizontal diagonal vertical] that fit each gap lately? Example: Has he phoned his mother this week? already? Our friends have ……………….. been to the supermarket. I heard my husband shouting ……………….. My colleague ……………….. came to work after her accident. We want to go on holiday ……………….. I have ……………….. lost my temper.

352 Returning to the questions with which we began
How can L1 knowledge be effectively used/harnessed in developing L2? Are most errors related to L1 interference? What are the areas of ‘grammar’ knowledge different activities might combine/explore ? How can we deepen understanding of language points across a course / across grades ? Answer each question with another teacher, using no more than 7 words for each answer.

353 Session 2: Grammar and vocabulary teaching - presentation and concept checking

354 Questions relating to issues in this session
How can we present grammar and language points to learners without focusing on forms in texts? What are some of the key steps in inductive and deductive presentations? What type of questions is it important to avoid in concept checking? Why is context so important in presenting language?

355 Concept presentation 1. 2.

356 Inductive and deductive approaches to presenting language.
Make a list of the mini-stages involved in this type of ‘inductive’ presentation Make a list of the mini-stages involved in this type of ‘deductive’ presentation.

357 Write concept questions and their answers for each structure
Write concept questions and their answers for each structure. Write a maximum of three questions for each structure. Sentences I’m sorry but I’ve lost my student card. Can I get another one? When I was a child, I used to play the piano. He’s working part-time at the moment and won’t be here until later. I wish I had an iPod. It can’t be John at the door – he’s gone overseas.

358 Research and devise a concept presentation
Take one of the target structures on the previous slide and prepare a short concept presentation with concept –checking phase to present to the class. Imagine a group of low intermediate learners A2 – low B1.

359 Returning to our question
Why is context so important in presenting language? Here are some answers this question It helps establish connections with what students know already. It is easier to generate meaningful and memorable examples of the language presented. Contexts are easier to animate with images and objects than abstractions Repetition in context can be motivating and amusing Learners can engage with contexts affectively, physically, aesthetically Discuss these points with reference to what you have seen and done in this session

360 Session 3: Learner training techniques - recording language and using reference resources

361 Questions relating to issues in this session
How and where should learners record language points from class? How can teachers encourage/promote good recording habits ? What should learners be encouraged to pay attention to in dictionaries ? How can teachers promote independent learning strategies?

362 Learner vocabulary notes
What can Ts do to encourage them to keep the right words together? How might learners keep or store words ?

363 In Hand-out 5 which learner has made the better note in each case ?
Learner grammar notes In Hand-out 5 which learner has made the better note in each case ?

364 Dictionary work Compare these two different online dictionary entries for the verb ‘agree’. Do they do anything different?

365 Features that promote independent learning in multi-level classrooms
extra sensitivity to grouping learners to ensure both supportive mixed-level group dynamics and grouping of learners to enable them to work on tasks at their own pace selection of materials and resources that are flexible in terms of how input can be accessed and outcomes achieved reliable means and instruments for assessing in an ongoing way most salient individual learner needs building up of self-access resources both at a class and school level development in learners of independent learning strategies adherence to ‘English only’ policies when working in small groups and teacher is occupied with learners in other groups.

366 Returning to our question …
How can teachers promote independent learning strategies? Discuss with another teacher which areas of your teaching situation you could target to effect the biggest impact in this area.

367 Session 4: Practising ‘new’ language strategies - teacher roles

368 Questions relating to issues in this session
How do we categorise different forms of ‘new’ language practice ? What is an appropriate balance between presentation and practice ? When and how should teachers intervene in such an activity? What kinds of Formative Assessment / Reflection opportunities do such activities give teachers ?

369 Teacher roles in controlled practice
To model effectively To prioritise accuracy but not sacrifice context To drill where necessary To engage attention of all learners To use effective correction techniques To optimise learner talking time To vary input stimulus To consolidate forms and sub-points to board.

370 Teacher role during freer practice
Pace the activity Listening for errors in the target language Listening to ensure that learners are on task Micro-teaching to individuals or pairs who have clearly not grasped the target language Adding input if learners cannot sustain output Assessing the development of fluency Assessing the task Monitor to facilitate decision-making in terms of what to do next.

371 Learner roles in freer practice
To engage with others in English to develop fluency To attempt to use the target language To gently monitor themselves using the target language To take risks and experiment with target language To offer observations post-activity.

372 Grammaticisation Try out this 3-step approach to meaningfully integrating the use of ‘words’ with Grammar Lexis grammar [ not : Grammar lexis] Step 1 : Situation Step 2 : Raw words John leave Jane arrive Step Context John really fancies Jane so changes his mind John wants to avoid Jane

373 Whose story ? Spot the person in the group whose story this actually is. Look for content clues Look for credibility clues Look for affective telling/recall and ask one ‘penetrating’ question.

374 FINAL THOUGHTS on communicative tasks
strive for value active listening have them doing multi-forum require greater cognitive and affective engagement make it about them foreground ‘context’ maintain a rich textual/pragmatic dimension.

375 Returning to our question
What is an appropriate balance between presentation and practice ? Discuss with another teacher what you feel the optimum balance would look like in a 45 minute lesson.

376 Day 10 Strategies for developing secondary reading and writing skills

377 Session 1: Reading comprehension and interpretation skills within the curriculum

378 Questions related to issues in this session
What do effective readers do ? How can we isolate certain types of skills development when dealing with texts ? What are key reading sub-skills? What are the purposes of different active learning pre-reading and post-reading activities ?

379 Reading: the bigger picture
Google these : Bring all your reading skills to bear in discussing the images and words and trying to work out the context relating to them.

380 Woman without her man is nothing.
Reading: the details Unpunctuated: Woman without her man is nothing. Punctuated by the man: Woman, without her man, is nothing. Punctuated by the woman: Woman, without her, man is nothing.

381

382

383

384 Which are more likely to involve top-down processes?
finding specific words/numbers in a text extracting main ideas in a text using a dictionary to check the meaning of a word using context to guess the meaning of an unknown word using word shape/lexical clues to guess meaning of a word stating explicit and implicit meaning of text highlighting direct speech in a text predicting outcomes in a text summarising ideas in a text.

385 Specific reading task skills focus
1 specific detail 5 opinion 2 purpose 6 detailed understanding (inference) 3 summary, utilisation 7 lexical meaning 4 main point 8 gist Anything else?

386 Wider reading classroom activities
Good idea or bad idea? Borrowing fiction/non-fiction from a class library Completing e-reader assignments Reading a set text as a class Using an English-Russian / English-Kazakh dictionary to note approximate meaning of words Completing regular English web-based assignments Reading local English newspapers Using a computer thesaurus to explore similar words Using an English-English dictionary to check words Keeping detailed vocabulary notebooks.

387 Returning to our question
How can we isolate certain types of skills development when dealing with texts ? Let’s read and make a note of the different types of skill targeted by different tasks. [11-13] [P 9-11]

388 Session 2: Strategies in working with texts - developing learner awareness

389 Questions related to issues in this session
What types of activity actively [physically] engage learners with meanings and patterns in text ? What do patterns of cohesion and coherence look like in texts ? What kind of micro-tasks can we use to develop detailed understanding?

390 Activities: beyond answering questions
Meaning graphs Spotting text changes Pre/post-diction Graphic organisers Jumbled paragraphs Cut out (missing) paragraphs Circle reference words

391 Approaches to gapped text
Coherence The relationships which link the meanings of the sentences in a text. Cohesion The grammatical and/or lexical relationships between the different elements of a text.

392 Coherence: post–diction task
Opening lines (previous paragraph) The bare hills in this region have been of increasing concern to the island’s authorities. Even in the hottest months, clouds form over the mountains of northern Lanzarote. This more ambitious scheme could be managed in one of two ways, he says. The results look promising.

393 Cohesion The article explains how teenagers from five different countries spend their free time outside of school. Although social media and shopping were the top choices of teenagers in the UK, neither of these were as popular as listening to music in the other four countries. Music is a popular choice of pastime amongst both the young and old. However, their tastes are often quite different. But what makes this pastime so a popular one? such each this these neither their the other both its both they so it here this did

394 Pre-reading Setting the context Generating interest
Activating current knowledge - what do you know about… (pooling) Knowledge gap (quiz motivation) Activating vocabulary/language (elicitation)/(meaning graphs) Predicting content (non-content) Pre-learning vocabulary (pre-teaching) Checking/understanding of comprehension task mechanics (exam technique)

395 Multiple-choice elimination
I shifted uncomfortably inside my best suit and eased a finger inside the tight white collar. It was hot in the little bus and I had taken a seat on the wrong side where the summer sun beat on the windows. It was a strange outfit for the weather, but a few miles ahead my future employer might be waiting for me and I had to make a good impression. There was a lot depending on this interview. Many friends who had qualified with me were unemployed or working in shops or as labourers in the shipyards. So many that I had almost given up hope of any future for myself as a veterinary surgeon. As he travelled, the writer regretted his choice of: A B clothes C career D means of transport

396 Rephrasing prompts [prelude to a matching task]
Which person: had to re-start their collection? received an unexpected gift? is aware that a fuller collection of items exists elsewhere? has a history of collecting different items? insists on purchasing top-quality items? has to protect their collection from damage? would like to create a hands-on display of their collection?

397 Google the term : Reading Graphic Organisers
Go to images : and investigate and try to come up with a type label for any that look particularly interesting. Work with another teacher on this.

398 Punchlines A motorist and his wife had had a quarrel and hadn’t spoke for hours. Suddenly the man saw a donkey in a field and said: ‘Must be a relative of yours.’ A bookshop assistant eager for a quick sale approached a student and said:’ This book is so good it will do half your homework for you’ A Maths teacher was explaining to a class what they had to do to get the answer to a problem: ’You have 10 fingers. Suppose you had 3 less what would you have?’ At a buffet dinner a husband said to his wife: ’You can’t be going back for dessert again. That makes 5 times. Aren’t you ashamed?’ During a lesson on the benefits of eating healthy food a teacher asked : ‘Name five things that contain milk’ A struggling newspaper reporter asked his editor: ‘Do you think I should put more fire into my stories ?’ ‘No music lessons’ ‘No I just say it’s for you’ ‘Cheese, butter and three cows.’ ‘Yes, by marriage.’ ‘No, vice-versa.’ ‘OK, I’ll take two of them.’

399 Returning to our question
What types of activity actively [physically] engage learners with meanings and patterns in text ? Rank some of the techniques we have reviewed in this session which could make the biggest impact on the way you deal with texts. Discuss your list with another teacher.

400 Session 3: Classroom writing process cycle - micro-stages in writing lessons

401 Questions related to issues in this session
What type of Writing learning objectives does the updated curriculum target? What type of processes do writers typically engage in when writing? How can we nurture better writing outcomes through classroom processes? Which parts of the classroom writing cycle imply pair/group collective writing activity?

402 Learning objectives Strand 5: Writing
Learners develop the ability to plan, draft, layout and edit texts using a wider range of high-frequency vocabulary, with an appropriate level of grammatical and lexical accuracy and correct punctuation. 

403 Writing objectives 9.W1 plan, write, edit and proofread work at text level with minimal teacher support on a range of general and curricular topics 9.W2 write independently about factual and imaginary past events, activities and experiences on a range of familiar general and curricular topics 9.W3 write with moderate grammatical accuracy on a growing range of familiar general and curricular topics 9.W4 use with limited support style and register appropriate to a growing variety of written genres on general and curricular topics 9.W5 develop with support coherent arguments supported when necessary by examples and reasons for a range of written genres in familiar general and curricular topics 9.W6 write coherently at text level using a variety of connectors on a range of familiar general and curricular topics 9.W7 use independently appropriate layout at text level on a growing range of general and curricular topics 9.W8 spell most high-frequency vocabulary accurately for a range of familiar general and curricular topics 9.W9 punctuate written work at text level on a range of familiar general and curricular topics with a good degree of accuracy

404 When writing, L2 learners need guidance with every step of the process
Data collection Selecting Planning Drafting Crafting Editing Rewriting Proof-reading.

405 Writing Assignment Cycle

406 Which part of writing cycle ?
Announcing something new Referring to the other person’s letter Telling the person what to write back Arranging future contact or meeting Enquiring about common acquaintances Making excuses for not writing I was sorry to hear… You’ll be pleased to know.. I am dying to know what/how.. By the way, have you heard from..? I’ll be in touch soon about… Bad news, I’m afraid.. What’s the latest on/about ..? I’m sorry it’s taken so long.. You’ll never guess who/what … Let me know whether… It’s been ages since I last… So that’s why you … I’ll need to hear from you by.. Which part of writing cycle ?

407 Letter B A letter to a friend of a friend to thank her and find out more because she has offered you the opportunity to stay with her for the month while you attend a language course in London. Letter A A letter to a holiday organisation to enquire about arrangements and facilities in their ‘historical English cottages’. You are a keen tennis player Your brother has a disability You like to get up early You and your family are vegetarians You are really messy at home You enclose a photo of yourself You give your ID number. You think smoking is a disgusting habit How much is it to phone your home country? What channels can get on TV? Is there a washing machine? How far is the town centre? Will towels be provided ? What’s English food like? How much do you earn? Which part of writing cycle ?

408 Dear Steve, Well, I’ve packed my belongings and I’m just about reading to depart. I had this long list of things to attend to before going, but everything will just have to wait until I return. I think you possess the phone number of the place where I’ll be residing for the next few weeks, so communicate by phone if there are any problems. It was warm-hearted of you to offer to look after the dogs while I am absent but they are used to the kennels so I don’t object to them going there. Which part of writing cycle ?

409 Write the rhetorical question that could have produced the rest of the paragraph
Example Are things really as bad as the experts say ? We don’t have to look far to realise that the situation is terrible, it is getting worse and people are making crazy lifestyle choices. ___________________________________? Well, everyone can make a start by changing their throw-away lifestyle. If individuals, then households and then organisations start to reuse things, we can make a difference ___________________________________________? The answer: they can probably do what you ask them to do. If you want to eat a bit later or want your little brother out of the way, just ask your parents. But the secret is to ask in advance not once you’ve been distracted Which part of writing cycle ?

410 Writing Assignment Cycle

411 Returning to our question….
Which parts of the classroom writing cycle imply pair/group collective writing activity ? What would your answer be ?

412 Session 4: Feedback and AfL strategies in relation to written learner outcomes

413 Questions related to issues in this session
How do teachers typically feedback on writing tasks? What happens following this process? What type of criteria might be used to assess comment on writing? How can we promote self-correction and engagement with the feedback process?

414 Criteria highlighting
Content: Organisation Communicative Achievement Language: accuracy and range 414

415 Written feedback types
correction code comment only marking criterion highlighting utilisation technique code red ‘elicitation’ ticks and crosses three stars and a wish editor tips composite feedback.

416 Mark Error indicated /\ A word is missing / Start a new sentence // Start a new paragraph Gr Grammar error Sp Spelling error P Punctuation error Art Error with articles (a, an, the)

417 Utilising The local market it is outdoors so that it is exposed to the elements. (organisation) as being Many cloths shops are expencieve, because there are brands. (accuracy and range) brands such shops can On the hole it is recomented that tourists should visit the local market. (register) I would On the whole tourists

418 Composite feedback Dear Visitor, Thank you for you interest in visiting our country. And you are welcome to visit our city, Trieste and all its surroundings. Trieste is a city with old traditions and a long history that begins in the distant years of the Roman Empire. The city centre is worth a deeper visit, thanks to its unique buildings and old-fashioned cafes - not to mention all the places not in the tourist guides. Do not get surprised if, round the corner, you discover something you didn’t expect. To come to know Trieste then you need to make a walk through its streets where you will find peaceful parks which are considered an oasis of peace.

419 Returning to our question
How can we promote self-correction and engagement with the feedback process? Rank these techniques in terms of how effective you think they might be in your teaching situation. correction code comment only marking criterion highlighting utilisation technique code red ‘elicitation’ ticks and crosses three stars and a wish editor tips composite feedback.

420 Day 11 Classroom management, micro-stage outcomes, monitoring and feedback in secondary listening and speaking activity

421 Session 1: Types of listening comprehension skill development within the curriculum

422 Questions relating to issues in this session
What do effective listeners do? What type of listening sub-skills are targeted in the curriculum? What types of task best help target sub-skill focuses? What range of listening tasks might we typically use for Formative Assessment?

423 Effective listeners: connect: make connections with people, places, situations, and ideas they know find meaning: determine what the speaker is saying about people, places, and ideas question: pay attention to those words and ideas that are unclear make and confirm predictions: try to determine what will be said next make inferences: determine speaker's intent by inferring what the speaker means but does not actually say reflect and evaluate: respond to what has been heard and pass judgement.

424 Listening skills taxonomy
Direct meaning comprehension Listen for gist Listening for main idea(s) or important information; and distinguishing that from supporting detail or examples Listening for specifics, including recall of important details Determining a speakers’ attitude or intention towards a listener or a topic Inferred meaning comprehension Making inferences and deductions Relating utterances to their social and situational context Recognising the communicative function of utterances Deducing meaning of unfamiliar lexical items from context Contributory meaning comprehension.

425 Listening skills taxonomy
Understanding phonological features Understanding grammatical notions such as comparison, cause, result, degree. Understanding discourse markers Understanding the main syntactic structure of clauses or idea units Understanding cohesion, especially reference Understanding lexical cohesion, especially lexical set membership and collocations Understanding use of lexis in context Listening and taking notes Ability to extract salient points to summarise the text Ability to select relevant key points.

426 Formative Assessment of Listening:
Look at Hand-out 3 and discuss with another teacher how you might deliver/stage this task to meet the conditions in the left-hand box. Formative Assessment Summative Assessment Informal Formal Continuous Final/Snapshot Oral/Written Written/oral Scaffolding/Improving Judging Assessment for learning Assessment of learning Dialogic Monologic Provides feedback/suggestions Provides a mark/status Furthers learning Measures learning Intended to motivate Often stressful for students Flexible Systematic, regulated Narrow focus Broad focus Useful further reading:

427 Returning to our question
What types of task best help target Listening sub-skill focuses? Make a table with another teacher.

428 Session 2: Micro-stages of listening lessons and integrated listening outcomes

429 Questions relating to issues in this session
How can we compensate for ‘context’ deficiency in listening tasks? What other work might we typically integrate listening/ viewing tasks with? What do we mean by ‘metacognition’ in listening? What phases of activity do teachers need to manage in and around ‘listening’ tasks ?

430 Micro-stages in listening
Lead in Pre-teach Gist question(s) Listening to part of the text First listening Check answers to the gist question(s) Look at the detailed comprehension questions Listening for detailed comprehension Check answers to the detailed comprehension questions Language analysis and/or reaction to the text.

431 Watch this extract from the series: ‘The human planet’
Video Extract : ‘Catching Auks’ from the episode Life in the deep freeze. This fits with cross-curricular objectives in Grade 11 relating to the preservation of food. Think about micro-stages in Listening lessons and discuss with another teacher some of the things you might do in using this Listening input.

432 Reasons for supporting listening through video
Expand learner experiences beyond the classroom (context) Accommodate different learning styles (medium) Support curriculum with real world tie-ins (content) Aid to retention and comprehension (media) Encourage learner participation (interaction patterns) Motivation and engagement (viewing techniques)

433 Video techniques to promote listening skills
sound on/sound off dubbing subtitles media adaptation karaoke function back to screen freeze frame

434 Returning to our question
How can we compensate for ‘context’ deficiency in listening tasks? With another teacher, make a list of useful techniques.

435 Session 3: Range and type of group, and whole class curriculum speaking activities

436 Questions related to issues in this session
How can we characterise/label different forms of speaking activity in class? Does all speaking activity need to have a specific skills focus? What areas/genres of speaking might specific skill focuses target. What do reliable speaking assessment criteria look like?

437 What types of speaking/oral assessment activities are suggested by these verbs of speech ?
Oral work Say Speak Tell Talk

438 Speaking activity focuses
Turns Active listening Skills and strategies Patterns of interaction Spoken language

439 Assessing Speaking What might we assess?
Write a list of terms that you think might feature in assessment criteria.

440 Which of these terms do your terms relate to?
Grammar and vocabulary Discourse management Pronunciation Interactive communication

441 Returning to our Question
Does all speaking activity need to have a specific skills focus? List activities for which the answer above would be no and types of activity for which the answer would be yes.

442 Session 4: Classroom management, monitoring and feedback of speaking activities

443 Questions relating to issues in this session
What skills does a teacher need to develop to effectively manage speaking lesson focuses? What are some of the ways that teachers can reduce TTT ? Should correction and feedback always be immediate? What strategies can teachers use to include more reticent speakers?

444 Video viewing In a table write down phases of this speaking / language input lesson that seem to fit the classification. T-S S-S S-T https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ue4-8y2MfQw

445 Returning to our question
Should correction and feedback always be immediate? Discuss with another teacher the best moments of giving feedback you have seen in this session.

446 Day 12 Developing resource finding, adaptation and awareness skills for the curriculum

447 Session 1: Types of widely available resource, and learning outcomes they promote

448 Questions relating to issues in this session
What do you think might be meant by the phrases ‘death by PowerPoint’ and ‘death by worksheet’? What type of ELT resource/support websites would you cite as useful? What should your first three questions be when evaluating the potential effectiveness of a resource? What ‘ready-made’ resources often prove the hardest to find?

449 Types of resources Slide shares Book/film resources Digital craft
Digital reference Worksheets Podcasts Literature sites (audio) Computer ELT Documentaries Audio-visual demonstrations Presentation software Print sites Teacher support sites

450 Returning to our question..
What should your first three questions be when evaluating the potential effectiveness of a resource ? Discuss with another teacher how you now answer this.

451 Session 2: CLIL approaches within the curriculum and finding CLIL resources

452 Questions related to issues in this session
What do you understand CLIL to mean? Are content with language lessons, CLIL lessons? What sort of language support will learners need when dealing with subject type tasks? Where can we begin to look for subject / cross-curricular resources?

453 Providing CLIL language support?
Discussion of your ideas: planning for the lesson? during the lesson? at the end of the lesson?

454 How can you provide language support?
Planning for the lesson: Write a language objective for the lesson plan. If the language of a text/resource is difficult, consider whether to adapt the resource or how to scaffold the teaching activity. If you have team-teaching in your class, share your lesson plan with the other teacher.

455 How can you provide language support?
During the lesson: State the language objective. Write key words on the board and pre-teach them. Use all four skills – listening, speaking, reading, writing. Encourage language learning skills – e.g. paraphrasing, asking for clarification, dictionary skills. Encourage critical thinking about language – e.g. learners comparing how to say things in Kazakh/Russian/English, learners being precise, learners assessing own progress in language. Be ‘language aware’ – e.g. give visual support, use body language, give learners time, repeat things, say it in a different way, give examples.

456 How can you provide language support?
At the end of the lesson: Review progress with the language objective. Give feedback on language as well as content. Liaise with the team teacher – if complex content is not understood. Liaise with language subject teacher – if any language issue (e.g. essay writing skills) need reinforcing.

457 CLIL resourcing: three routes
Subject curriculum support sites: CLIL and subject materials searches Generic CLIL sites

458 Returning to our question
What sort of language support will learners need when dealing with subject type tasks? What were the best examples of ‘scaffolding’ task that you met during this session ? Discuss with another teacher.

459 Session 3: Evaluating resources against curriculum learning objectives

460 Questions relating to issues in this session
Does the way we use a resource need to match the intended learning purpose of that resource? Is vocabulary level always a potential barrier in using a resource? What should our key concerns be in adapting resources? What do you understand by the terms ‘staging’ and ‘pacing’ in lessons?

461 Resource evaluation What kind of resource is this (structured tutorial, supporting material, index)? What purpose does it seem to have, in terms of learning needs? How would you use it with learners in practice? (e.g. what activities/assessment tasks could you structure around it?) How would you describe it to learners in one or two sentences? How effective do you find it as a learning resource?

462 Adapting materials Bridging Making objectives meet requirements
Matching purpose Maximising appropriacy Looking for ‘congruence’. McDonough and Shaw 2003

463 Returning to our question
Is vocabulary level always a potential barrier in using a resource? Did you feel any of the resources presented had problems in this respect?

464 Session 4: Presenting a cross-curricular resource to peers with appropriate language scaffolding

465 Questions relating to issues in this session
What areas of language might be the focus in scaffolding for subject tasks? Is scaffolding appropriate for every stage of lessons? In such lessons, what is it important to consolidate/concept-check in addition to the language in tasks ?

466 Language objectives: guidelines
For each short-term lesson plan: Write a language objective which helps to achieve the subject learning objective and which encourages use of language. e.g. Make an oral presentation on... List subject-specific vocabulary: e.g. rational number, fraction, denominator, numerator List useful phrases (classroom language) for dialogue/writing: they could be an explanation, e.g. If A is inversely proportional to B, then… they could be grammatical, e.g. bigger than, smaller than they could be frames for dialogue/writing, e.g. Can you say why…? Further guidance: Introduction to language objectives and samples in course plans.

467 Returning to our question…
Is scaffolding appropriate for every stage of lessons? Discuss with another teacher in relation to the examples of the ‘content with language’ lessons seen in this session.

468 Day 13 Progression and achievement (Classroom-based assessment)

469 Session 1: Types of differentiation and identifying success criteria

470 Questions related to issues in this session
In what ways can teachers ‘differentiate’ learning? Is differentiation only related to differences in subject ability? Is it practical for teachers of large classes to differentiate learning objectives? Is this a valid response to the course plan?

471 ‘Differentiated’ learning in practice
It is not just about: “individualising” instruction e.g. through worksheets or homework tasks OR balancing “group work” with “individual work” so as to support different learners differently

472 Effective ‘differentiated’ learning
Effective ‘differentiated’ learning is more about noticing how different learners react to different techniques...responding and adapting to this…modifying and varying activities within the teaching mix, keeping all learners involved in lesson outcomes.

473 Differentiated by support
A varying amount of support can be offered to learners in a variety of ways. Weaker learners can be supported through instruction/prompt modification The more able learners will need to feel challenged too. Their input could provide support for weaker learners, they could be given more challenging instructional tasks or they could be given additional contextualised problems.

474 Differentiated success criteria
The success criteria specified could be differentiated by indicating what proportion of the class will achieve which criteria: ALL – every learner in the class will achieve this MOST – a large proportion of the class will achieve this SOME – a few of the more able will achieve this. Some learners will not try to achieve this but instead focus on earlier success criteria.

475 Differentiated by task
Tasks are set according to learners’ abilities. They may differ in content or structure. This may be as simple as having a choice between a variety of questions getting progressively more difficult, or learners attempting completely different tasks covering the same topic.

476 Learning styles or modes are also a way of conceptualising differentiation by task
Digital Virtual

477 Differentiated by outcome
Each learner is set the same investigative, creative and/or open-ended task. Learners produce a variety of solutions/designs dependent on their ability, strengths and preferences in learning. Simple examples would be for learners to design and answer their own problems/questions about a topic being studied. Learners being given investigations may just test and report results, whilst the more able may be able to generalise and justify more easily.

478 A profusion of new literacies under discussion relating to the digital revolution. Differentiated outcomes can target these. the ability to mine new information and interact constructively with it New literacies Information Literacy Media Literacy ICT/digital Literacy Visual Literacy News Literacy Emotional Literacy/ Intelligence constellation of behavioural dispositions and self-perceptions concerning one’s ability to recognise, process, and utilise emotion-laden information the ability to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image

479 Returning to our question
Is differentiation only related to differences in subject ability? Discuss with another teacher.

480 Session 2: Distinguishing learning objectives, lesson objectives and success criteria

481 Questions relating to issues in this session
How are learning objectives and lesson objectives different? What are key words when thinking about success criteria? What do SMART lesson objectives look like?

482 Course Plan: ‘Writing learning objectives’
9.W1 plan, write, edit and proofread work at text level with minimal teacher support on a range of general and curricular topics 9.W2 write independently about factual and imaginary past events, activities and experiences on a range of familiar general and curricular topics 9.W3 write with moderate grammatical accuracy on a growing range of familiar general and curricular topics 9.W4 use with limited support style and register appropriate to a growing variety of written genres on general and curricular topics 9.W5 develop with support coherent arguments supported when necessary by examples and reasons for a range of written genres in familiar general and curricular topics 9.W6 write coherently at text level using a variety of connectors on a range of familiar general and curricular topics 9.W7 use independently appropriate layout at text level on a growing range of general and curricular topics 9.W8 spell most high-frequency vocabulary accurately for a range of familiar general and curricular topics 9.W9 punctuate written work at text level on a range of familiar general and curricular topics with a good degree of accuracy

483 Lesson objectives in plans
Choosing clear learning objectives, relating to overarching learning objectives for the Grade, will help when thinking about what support is appropriate for learners, whether they are struggling or are able. Success criteria specify what changes are expected as a result of a lesson. They are set out at the beginning of the lesson and should include measurable indicators to show that learners’ knowledge and understanding has grown. The success criteria will be the focus of the plenary at the end of the lesson, when reviewing what has been learnt during the lesson.

484 Using the planning template Lesson objectives need to be SMART

485 Differentiated success criteria in plans
The success criteria specified could be differentiated by indicating what proportion of the class will achieve which criteria: ALL – every learner in the class will achieve this MOST – a large proportion of the class will achieve this SOME – a few of the more able will achieve this. Some learners will not try to achieve this but instead focus on earlier success criteria.

486 Returning to our question
How are learning objectives and lesson objectives different? Discuss with another teacher pairs of opposite adjectives you could use to contrast them.

487 Session 3: Exploring writing assessment guidance and success criteria

488 Questions related to issues in this session
What kind of words feature in writing assessment criteria? Should I have similar words in mind when assessing writing formatively? What do positive teaching outcomes of formative assessment look like?

489 Writing assessment criteria words
desired effect on the target reader content non-impeding suitable linking devices audience coherence range of structure and vocabulary language is accurate register complexity format appropriate cohesion purpose errors.

490 The Cambridge English learning ladder
CPE C2 CAE C1 FCE B2 PET B1 KET A2 Flyers C2 Movers For schools versions YLE Beg-A2

491 B1 Target learning outcomes
brainstorm, plan and draft written work at text level with limited support compose, edit and proofread written work at text level with limited support write with moderate grammatical accuracy with limited support develop coherent arguments supported when necessary by reasons, examples and evidence for a growing range of written genres use with limited support style and register appropriate to a limited range of written use appropriate layout for a range of written genres spell a range of high-frequency vocabulary accurately punctuate a range of written work with accuracy.

492 Band 4 The learner’s writing will achieve the desired effect on the target reader. The use of language will be fairly ambitious for the level, including a range of structures and vocabulary within the task set. There will be some linking of sentences and evidence of organisation. Some errors will occur, although these will be generally non-impeding. Overall, only a little effort will be required of the reader

493 Band 3 The learner’s writing may struggle at times to achieve the desired effect on the target reader. The use of language, including the range of structure and vocabulary, will be unambitious, or, if ambitious, it will be flawed. There will be some attempt at organisation but the linking of sentences will not always be maintained. A number of errors may be present, although these will be mostly non-impeding. Overall, some effort will be required of the reader.

494 Remember key contrasts in focus even though you may internalise same criteria

495 Returning to our question
What do positive teaching outcomes of formative assessment look like? Make a list of the kind of things that observations relating to writing performance might prompt you to do in subsequent lessons.

496 Session 4: Microteaching involving assessment and feedback techniques

497 Questions relating to issues in this session
Does the accuracy or fluency focus of an activity affect how and when I give feedback? What kind of feedback/comment habits should I avoid in oral and questioning activities? What techniques can make correction less demotivating? How can we integrate peer feedback in non-threanening ways?

498 Silent pointing / correction space technique

499 AFL: Oral techniques [f] How and when ? Techniques [P] [G] [I] [W]
Monitoring notes Lexical interrogation/notebooks Recasting CCQs Silent pointing Summary go-betweens Peer presentation feedback Error review Finger correction Quiz. [f] How and when ? [P] [G] [I] [W]

500 Returning to our question
What techniques can make correction less demotivating? Discuss with another teacher ideas you’ll be taking away from this session.

501 Day 14 Planning language lessons

502 Session 1: Focusing on dimensions and features of lesson plans

503 Questions relating to issues in this session
What are the key documents informing planning in the delivery of the English curriculum ? In what time frames does it make sense to think about the course plan in terms of lesson planning? What are the key considerations when evaluating a plan?

504 Progress Cycle Formative Assessment

505 Planning lessons including classroom assessment
Assessment guidance and success criteria Assess each learning objective Use both documents to plan lessons. Cross-reference materials using the learning objectives. These documents are in development. For documents that are currently draft, updated versions will be available by September. Course plan Teach each learning objective Identify resources for each learning objective Plan lesson

506 Planning In groups, identify quickly what the key documents are for teachers in planning class work. In groups, discuss briefly the difference between the following terms in the planning process: learning objectives learning outcomes learning success criteria

507 Planning questions to consider
When planning, evaluating or reflecting on lessons consider: Are the lesson objectives designed to ensure that there is appropriate challenge for all learners? Do the planned activities meet the needs of all the learners? Are there any specific needs/circumstances of individuals that need to be taken into consideration? Are all learners participating in the activities? Are the resources matched to the needs of the learners? Can all learners access and use the resources they need?

508 Returning to our question
In what time frames does it make sense to think about the course plan in terms of lesson planning? Discuss with another teacher how far ahead it is SMART to plan in terms of the course plan.

509 Session 2: Identifying micro-stages in lesson plan sequences

510 Questions relating to issues in this session
Why are interaction patterns T-S, S-S, S-T important to note in plans ? What techniques are most effective for me in reducing TTT? What labels can we give to micro-stages in English lessons? What kind of things do I need to reflect on in terms of my behaviours after a lesson?

511 Reducing teacher talking time
Elicit Elicit answers and concepts from students. Concept check understanding of new words and structures. Don’t over explain. Body language Use body language, gestures, props, and the board to explain. Instructions Make instructions simple and concise to avoid explaining them multiple times. Echoing Don’t echo learner responses. Questions Ask open-ended questions, not yes/no questions. Use “why” and “how” to prompt learner explanations. Ask follow-up questions.

512 Reducing teacher talking time
Participation Encourage all learners to participate. Learners should read instructions, examples, exercise questions, and anything else that is possible. The teacher should never read these things. Study methods Use inductive methods to teach new ideas. Learners should use self-discovery to find answers and solutions. Feedback Learners can give each other feedback rather than the teacher. Silence Provide learners with ample thinking time so they can formulate answers and be prepared to speak. Tolerate silence and don’t fill it with TTT.

513 Reducing teacher talking time
Lesson plans Prepare your lesson plans thoroughly. A teacher with a good lesson plan is less likely to fill in gaps with talk time. Learner confidence Be positive about mistakes. Provide a welcoming class environment where learners feel they are able to make mistakes. Increase learners’ confidence whenever possible. Learner level Make sure learners are in the appropriate level. Ask learners appropriate questions so they are able to answer.

514 Reflection checklists
Do I use questioning effectively to gauge learners’ understanding? How good is the dialogue and oral feedback? Am I alert to learners’ lack of understanding during lessons? Are key questions displayed and used in lesson starts and plenary? ‘What? Why? How? When?’ Do learners have targets and do they understand what they mean/what to do to achieve them? Are learners involved in assessing their own learning and progress? Does marking/feedback identify strengths and diagnose next steps to improvement? Learner progress Clear expectations made of learning Learners making value added progress during lesson in their knowledge and skills Behaviour and enjoyment Attitudes Attentiveness Desire to learn more Enthusiasm/enjoyment Effort made

515 Returning to our question
What labels can we give to micro-stages in English lessons? List in discussion with another teacher different examples of ‘stages’ we have come across in this session.

516 Session 3: AFL, concept-checking, consolidation, feedback and plenary staging in plans

517 Questions relating to issues in this session
What different AFL strategies can we name? Why is variety in the type of AFL technique we use important? What does the term ‘intake’ mean ? How is it different from learner output? Do AFL techniques relate more to teacher input or learner output phases of the lesson?

518 AFL techniques Monitoring notes Concept checking
Lexical interrogation/ notebooks Controlled to freer practice Can-do’s Traffic lights Correction codes Exit passes Utilising learner outcomes Criterion highlighting Presentation forums Quiz

519 Example Activity Secondary
The ‘Do’ Card Quiz Analyse the activity in groups and decide what specific language issues/points the activity gives you scope to monitor in terms of AFL.

520 Example Activity Primary
Object moving Whiteboard scene card [can-do]

521 Plenaries To provide the necessary variety, plenaries can be used to:
draw together what has been learned, to highlight the most important rather than the most recent points, to summarise key facts, ideas and vocabulary, and stress what needs to be remembered generalise from examples generated earlier in the lesson go through an exercise, question learners and rectify any remaining misunderstandings make links to other work and what the class will go on to do next highlight not only what learners has learnt but how they have learnt it highlight the progress learners have made and remind them about their personal targets set homework to extend or consolidate class work and prepare for future lessons.

522 What does the term ‘intake’ mean
What does the term ‘intake’ mean ? How is it different from learner ‘output’? Discuss with another teacher why this distinction is so important for AFL in English classes.

523 Session 4: Presenting ‘rationale’ of micro-plans to peers

524 Questions relating to issues in our session.
What kind of ‘balances’ will a good language lesson plan maintain? What are different terms for checking stages in plans? What is eliciting? How should this be detailed in plans?

525 Learning cycle

526 Using the planning template
Planned timings 0-3 minutes 4-6 Middle 7-11 12-14 15-30 31-35

527 Using the planning template

528 Returning to our question
What kind of ‘balances’ will a good language lesson plan maintain? Discuss with another teacher good examples of plans you have seen this session.

529 Day 15 Engaging learners with curriculum content and introduction to micro-teaching

530 Session 1: Learner engagement techniques - lesson hooks, forms of personification, flipped classroom, types of elicitation

531 Questions relating to issues in this session
When we use the term ‘engage’ learners, what is it that we might want to appeal to? What techniques can we use to ‘hook’ learner interest? What processes does the idea of the flipped classroom refer to? Beyond homework, what type of learning-related activity might we hope to promote outside of class?

532 Lesson hooks Setting context Connection or link Motivation Previews

533 Types of ‘hook’ Magic tricks Jokes (punch lines)
Quotations (when, by whom) Statistics (get one past me) Cartoons (the point is) Trailers Comic ads Video clips [exams: Headlines (change one word)

534 Flipped classroom techniques
Before : Learners prepare to take part in class activities During : Learners practice applying key concepts with feedback After : Learners check their understanding and extend their learning

535 Flipped classroom benefits
New learners can catch up on what’s been done, without the teacher having to repeat the same lessons. Flipping  supports differentiation as learners can go through the lesson as much as they need. Flipping  allows teachers to better support learners in person in class, rather than doing all the teaching and support in the class time slot. Flipping provides ready-made review and consolidation, as well as being learner-centred, because the learners take responsibility for their learning.

536 Returning to our question
Beyond homework, what type of learning related activity might we hope to promote outside of class? Complete So learners that truly engage with content might :

537 Session 2: Task-staging: promoting greater interaction and engagement

538 Questions relating to issues in this session
What key features do games, puzzles and quizzes have that make them engaging? Which type of motivation are most classroom tasks most likely to tap into? Why are ‘instruction checking’, ‘activity modelling’, and ‘doing one together’ such important classroom techniques?

539 Language learning motivation

540 Optimising instrumental motivation
Conceptualise task Authenticate value Stay focused Target outcomes

541 Returning to our question
Which type of motivation are most classroom tasks most likely to tap into? Discuss with another teacher which elements of which activities we have done this session would have most appealed to you as a learner.

542 Session 3: Introduction to principles and practice of micro-teaching
Session 3: Introduction to principles and practice of micro-teaching. Observing video demonstration lessons

543 Questions relating to issues in this session
What is the purpose of micro-teaching? How will micro-teaching in week 4 be organised? What type of things will the micro-teaching focus on? What sort of feedback is built into the process?

544 Microteaching Class size Time Task Content…scaled down

545 Focus : Activity-based teaching
Staging Pacing TTT Instructions Eliciting Questioning Correcting Drilling Giving Feedback Modelling Board skills Materials handling Writing Lesson Objectives Selecting reso