Presentation on theme: "THE WAR OF 1812. THE PATH TO WAR France & England at war 1803 – US trading with both France captured US ships headed for England England captured US ships."— Presentation transcript:
THE PATH TO WAR France & England at war 1803 – US trading with both France captured US ships headed for England England captured US ships headed for France English citizens not join Navy – so they kidnapped US sailors – IMPRESSMENT – and forced to work on English ships Between 1803 to 1812 – 6,000 Americans!
NO MORE TRADE “PEACEABLE COERCION” – Jefferson not declare war – instead stop ALL foreign trade EMBARGO ACT of 1807 – passed by Congress – harmed US more than France or Britain – lost markets for products – some violated embargo Madison won next Presidential election – 1807 – and changed embargo to JUST France & England – OK to trade with everyone else
TECUMSEH & NATIVE AMERICAN UNITY Since Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, NA continued to lose land to white settlers TECUMSEH – Shawnee chief – vowed to stop this Indiana governor, William Harrison, signed Treaty of Ft. Wayne with Miami, Delaware, Potawatomi tribes to sell 3 million acres Tecumseh declared treaty void – sale could only go thru if ALL tribes agree, not just a few 1811 – Harrison’s forces defeated Shawnee at Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Tippecanoe 1811 – Harrison’s forces defeated Shawnee at Battle of Tippecanoe Tecumseh joined British in Canada Americans ‘ anti-British sentiments increased
The WAR of 1812 WAR HAWKS – some Americans in the WEST support war against British – for naval actions against US and N.A. policies Less eager for war – Americans in Northeast – trade relations with British June 18, 1812 – President James Madison asked Congress to DECLARE WAR on Britain
War of 1812 – Phase 1 British concentrating on its war with France BUT British Blockade the American coast Triumph – Lake Erie – Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry force British to surrender Sept. 1813 Triumph – Detroit – General Harrison – British already retreated but he pursued and defeated at Battle of the Thames Oct. 1813 – Chief Tecumseh lost life fighting for British
War of 1812 – Phase 2 British defeated Napoleon and France – April 1814 British Burn Capitol & White House in Washington D.C. – August 1814 British attacked Fort McHenry in Baltimore & defeated Francis Scott Key wrote “The Star Spangled Banner” – NOW our American National Anthem
War of 1812 – Phase 2 (continued) Battle of Lake Champlain – British defeated by American ships – September 1814 Battle of New Orleans – Dec. 1814 to Jan. 1815 Dozens of British ships approached with 7500 men American General Andrew Jackson defended from earth mound defenses – Defeated British Treaty of Ghent – December 24, 1814 - signed in Ghent, Belgium – WAR OVER!
Treaty of Ghent War of 1812 – no clear winner No territory changed hands Trade disputes left unresolved IMPORTANT CONSEQUENCES FOR AMERICA Patriotism increased – Jackson & Perry are heroes Native Americans – resistance weakened Interrupted trade forced Americans to make goods – Growth of American Manufacturing Nation’s Future Optimistic – can defend against mightiest military power – British --America Will Survive!!