5 DistillationIn this process, the crude oil is heated to above 400 OC to vapourize. The resulting vapours are then carried to a fractional column, having different temperature zones i-e. fractional column is divided into several compartments, each compartment has a specific range of temperature. As the petroleum vapours ascent the column,cont….
6 several fractions condense & separate in these compartments several fractions condense & separate in these compartments. More than 500 hydrocarbons are separated from crude oil. The lighter molecules comes off at the top of the distillation column, the heavier at the bottom.
7 Fraction Boiling Range (oC) Number of Carbon Atoms natural gas < 20 C1 to C4petroleum etherC5 to C6gasolineC5 to C12keroseneC12 to C13fuel oils> 260C14 to C19lubricants> 400C20 and aboveasphalt or cokeResiduepolycyclic
8 CrackingCracking is a process in which heavy-molecular weight hydrocarbons are broken up into light hydrocarbon molecules by the application of heat and pressure, with or without the use of catalysts, to derive a variety of fuel products. Cracking is one of the principal ways in which crude oil is converted into useful fuels such as motor gasoline, jet fuel, and home heating oil.
9 ExampleC16H C8H18+C8H16Molecule with 16 carbon atoms cannot be used as gasoline but molecule with 8 carbon atom can.cracking
10 CokingThe coking process is very similar to an extreme case of cracking where one of the end products is cokeHeavy residual products which accumulate at the base of the fractionation tower have become more of a problem for petroleum refneries.This is primarily due to the decrease in demand for heavy residual fuels.
11 DewaxingPetroleum dewaxing is used to extract high molecular weight components, often referred to as waxes, from a petroleum stream. These impurities cause petroleum products to gel or solidify at higher temperatures.
12 Gases such as propane are useful as dewaxing agents Gases such as propane are useful as dewaxing agents. When propane is injected into the fluid stream it becomes a gas; this effect, called auto refrigeration, causes the fluid to cool rapidly. The waxy materials will turn from liquid to solid and can be filtered out or skimmed from the top of the tank.
13 HYDROFINISHING UNITIn this final processing stage, the lube base oils are stabilized and their colour is further improved by hydrogenation under severe operating conditions in the presence of a catalyst.The hydrofinished lube oils are dispatched to refinery storage tanks for distribution to Oil Marketing/Lube Oil Blending Companies.
14 Environmental Pollution in Petroleum Refineries
15 Air Pollutants from Refining Operations Major air pollutant that may be emitted from refining operations areSulphur CompoundsHydrocarbonsNitrogen oxidesParticulatesetc
16 Sulphur CompoundsThe main source of sulphur dioxide emissions are from combustion operations such as fired heaters , boilers & catalytic cracking.
17 HydrocarbonsThe emissions of hydrocarbons result mainly from evaporation of light oils during storage & handling of crude & petroleum products & from leaks.
18 Nitrogen oxidesCombustion of fuel in fired heaters & boilers & in internal combustion engines , electric generators are the main source of Nitrogen oxides emissions.
19 ParticulatesThe major sources include sludge burner, emergency flares , and boilers , furnaces , emergency operations and incomplete combustion.
20 Water Pollution from Refining Operations Water is used in petroleum refineries for variety of puposes.Since water does not enter into the final product , it can be expected that 80-90% of the water supplied to the refinery comes out as waste water.
21 Characteristics Of wastewater from Petroleum Refineries in Pakistan S.No.Effluent characteristicsValue1Flow,1/kg oil1.52pH3Suspended solids, mg/l4BOD , mg/l5COD , mg/l---6BOD/COD7BOD load, g/unit product0.3