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Living in a Democracy Explain what you think is meant by living in a democracy?

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Presentation on theme: "Living in a Democracy Explain what you think is meant by living in a democracy?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Living in a Democracy Explain what you think is meant by living in a democracy?

2 Living in a Democracy The term ‘democracy’ has always been contestable and changeable Regarded in the Greek period as the ‘rule of the mob’ A. Arblaster Best known definition: ‘government of the people, by the people, and for the people’ Lincoln, 1863

3 Living in a Democracy in Britain movement towards giving people power was protracted and uneven Between 1832 and 1928 Britain’s political identity was changed gradually An Election: The Polling (1754)

4 Pressure for Change in 19 th century Why Industrial revolution Revolutions Middle class ChartistsDemographic change

5 The 1832 Reform Act Why was it introduced? To give a greater political voice to the middle classes

6 The 1832 Reform Act Granted the vote to merchants and manufacturers political recognition for professional and trades people Voters: marginally increased to 652,000 voters from 435,000 Every man owning or renting property worth more than £10 per year got the vote in the boroughs and £2 or more in the counties

7 The 1832 Reform Act Vote was given to tenants who either rented land paying more than £50 per year or held land lease of more than £10 However 5 out of 6 males still had no vote Only 18% of males The Knight Errant in Quest of Votes, 1832

8 The 1832 Reform Act Constituencies: before act 658 MPs, counties and boroughs Boroughs and English counties sent 2 MP’s back but Scotland counties had only one After Act, Scotland returned 53 and populations with less than 2,000 lost their MP

9 Effects of Reform Act Some anomalies corrected Size of electorate increased to 1 in 7 males Trend of urbanisation recognised However MPs still mainly came from South and continued to be dominated by landed classes Still no secret ballot Power of wealth had been safeguarded as linked with property values Led to further agitation and reform

10 Activity Explain why industrialisation and the ideas surrounding the French Revolution increased demands for political reform in Britain? Describe the difficulties involved in the passing of the 1832 Reform Act In what ways did the 1982 Reform Act affect The voters The constituencies

11 This 1832 cartoon by John Doyle shows the British public helping Earl Grey against William IV and the Duke of Wellington

12 Change in Parties Tories split over repeal of anti-corn laws, moved towards ideology of conservatism Whigs moved towards liberalism and further reform

13 Change in Parties Between 1852 and 1860 four reform bills were presented 3 from Lord John Russell ‘Finality Jack’ Wanted vote to be given to working people who were educated and owned property all acts failed

14 The 1866 Reform Bill Aimed to increase the electorate by lowering property values and including people with £50 savings Led to split in liberal party and resignation of Russell Tories invited to form minority government, against reform but due to demand had to propose further reform

15 The second Reform Act, 1867 Why was it introduced? Growth and expression of the working class voice in 1850s onwards Declining power of the old land-owning aristocracy Spread of new ideas/ideology Liberalism popular Respectability of urban artisans National protests e.g. TUs Revolution? Hyde Park 1866 ‘dish the whigs’ by ‘stealing the liberal’s clothes’

16 The second Reform Act, 1867 This act increased the electorate by 1,120,000 voters to 2.5 million All householders with one years residence paying rates got the vote Lodgers in accommodation valued at £10 and Occupiers of premises worth £12 got the vote One male in three now had the vote

17 The second Reform Act, 1867 Constituencies: many disenfranchised 52 seats redistributed, 25 went to counties, 19 to the boroughs, one to London university and 2 to Scottish universities, 5 to Scotland

18 The second Reform Act, 1867 Did not alter the balance of political power Electorate still largely remained the same Parties had to develop national organisations as boroughs increased voters therefore less independent MPs

19 Historical debate: why was it introduced Whigs: due to economic and social change and popular pressure Socialist: popular agitation e.g. campaign in 1866 and Hyde Park riot Tories: Party competition, neither Disraeli or Gladstone were interested in creating a democratic system rather they were outplaying each other

20 Activity Why was Lord John Russell known as ‘Finality Jack’ and in what ways did he change his position after 1852? In what ways was there pressure outside Parliament for reform in the early 1860s? Describe the main events surrounding the passing of the 1867 Reform Act What impact did the Reform Act of 1867 have on: The voters The constituencies The Parties?

21 The Ballot Act, 1872 System still had to free itself from bribery, corruption and intimidation In 1865, £14,000 was spent on bribing the 1408 voters in Lancaster Parties argued voting was a privilege which should be carried out in public

22 The Ballot Act, 1872 Enquiry in 1865 election revealed scale of malpractice Gladstone brought in a bill, rejected by the lords in 1871 became law in 1872 Voting to be carried out in secret, intimidation declined

23 The Ballot Act, 1872: Corruption not completely wiped out. Between 1867/ 1885 4 towns were disenfranchised due to corrupt practices. This was dealt with in 1883

24 Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act 1883 Plugged the gaps in the Ballot Act,1872 Candidates election expenses were determined by size of constituency Election agents had to account for their spending

25 Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act 1883 Detailed definition of illegal and corrupt practices Breach of the law disqualified a candidate for 7 years Active involvement in corruption was punishable by fine or imprisonment How effectively did the Ballot Act of 1872 and the 1883 Act deal with the problems of bribery?

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