2 Getting Started…This is a process to help you organize your analysis of poetry and various works.Together, we are going to analyze Psalm 23 using TP-CASTT.Now, please copy the next chart in yournotebook…
4 T is for TITLE Analyze the title first. What do you predict this poem or work will be about?Write down your predictions.We will reflect on the title again after we have read the poem.The next step is often omitted, but it is the most important!
5 T is for TITLE PSALM 23 – “A Psalm of David” What does psalm mean? In Greek it means “instrumental music” and in Hebrew it means “praises.”What do we know about David? How might that influence our understanding?What are your predictions?David sings a song praising the Lord.Why would he praise the Lord?
6 P is for PARAPHRASEHow can we paraphrase the poem?Paraphrasing is putting something in your own words.After reading the poem, rewrite it in your own words.This may be three sentences or a page, depending on the particular poem.
7 Psalm 23: a psalm of david23 The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. 2 He makes me to lie down in green pastures; He leads me beside the still waters. 3 He restores my soul; He leads me in the paths of righteousness For His name’s sake.4 Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil; For You are with me; Your rod and Your staff, they comfort me.5 You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; You anoint my head with oil; My cup runs over. 6 Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me All the days of my life; And I will dwell[a] in the house of the Lord Forever.
8 C is for CONNOTATIONapostrophearchetypesAnalyze the figures of speech and sound effects of the poem.Look at the connotations of words (connections and associations)Examine any literary elementsalliterationRHYMEpersonificationdictiononomatopoeiasimileONOMATOPEIAHYPERBOLEmetaphor
9 Psalm 23: a psalm of david What connotations do we have with the poem? 23 The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. 2 He makes me to lie down in green pastures; He leads me beside the still waters. 3 He restores my soul; He leads me in the paths of righteousness For His name’s sake.5 You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; You anoint my head with oil; My cup runs over. 6 Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me All the days of my life; And I will dwell in the house of the Lord Forever.4 Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil; For You are with me; Your rod and Your staff, they comfort me.
10 A is for ATTITUDETone is the attitude of the speaker toward the subject of the poem.
11 Don’t Confuse Tone & Mood! Tone is the author's or the poet's attitudetowards his or her subject.Mood is how the poem makes a reader feel.Therefore, the tone in the Psalm would be David’s attitude in the text.What is the tone of the Psalm?
12 What are the shifts in the Psalm? S is for SHIFTIf there is a change in…TimeToneMoodSpeakerThis should always be noted as this will also affect the meaning.What are the shifts in the Psalm?
13 T is for TITLE (again)At this time, you should reconsider the title.Were you right in your predictions?What other meanings might the title have in light of your analysis?
14 Write a thematic statement: T is for THEMEAs you already know, theme is the general insight into life conveyed by the author through his/her work.It merely states something that is true to life and the human condition.Write a thematic statement:STEP ONE: Choose an important topic in the poem.STEP TWO: Write what the work conveys or says about that topic.
15 How do I find the THEME? Look at the other parts of TPCASTT. What insight are all of these working together to convey?What is the poet trying to say about life?
16 Now it is your turn! TPCASTT Psalm 121 Psalm 121 A Song of Ascents.3 He will not allow your foot to be moved; He who keeps you will not slumber. 4 Behold, He who keeps Israel Shall neither slumber nor sleep.5 The Lord is your keeper; The Lord is your shade at your right hand. 6 The sun shall not strike you by day, Nor the moon by night.121 I will lift up my eyes to the hills— From whence comes my help? 2 My help comes from the Lord, Who made heaven and earth.7 The Lord shall preserve you from all evil; He shall preserve your soul. 8 The Lord shall preserve your going out and your coming in From this time forth, and even forevermore.