4 Section 20 – Scope A lease is an agreement whereby the lessor conveys to the lessee in return for payment or a series of payments the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time Section 20 covers accounting and reporting for most leases (see paragraphs 20.1–20.3 for exceptions and inclusions)
5 Section 20 – Classification of leases A lease is classified –a finance lease if it transfers substantially all the risks & rewards incidental to ownership –an operating lease if it does not transfer substantially all the risks & rewards incidental to ownership Use judgement considering all facts & circumstances to classify leases –operating lease if lessor retains significant risks & rewards of ownership –substance of finance lease is similar to the purchase of an asset on credit.
6 Section 20 – Classification of leases continued Situations that individually or in combination normally indicate a finance lease: –lease transfers ownership of the asset to lessee –from inception lessee reasonably certain to exercise bargain purchase option –lease term is for the major part of assets economic life –at inception PV of MLPs = substantially all assets fair value –specialised asset (only lessee can use without major modifications)
7 Section 20 – Classification of leases continued Situations that individually or in combination could indicate a finance lease –lessee can cancel the lease but compensates the lessors for associated losses –gains or losses from the fluctuation in the residual value of the leased asset accrue to the lessee –lessee can continue the lease for a secondary period at a rent that is substantially lower than market rent
Section 20 – Lease classification Ex Ex 1: On 1/1/20X1 enter into 5-yr non cancellable lease over a machine. Machines cash cost = 100,000, economic life = 10 yrs and residual value = 0. Annual lease payments on 31/12: 4 × 23,000 & 23,539 at end of yr 5 when ownership transfers to the lessee. The interest rate implicit in the lease is 5% p.a. which approximates lessees incremental borrowing rate. 8
Section 20 – Lease classification Ex Ex 2: Same as Ex 1 except ownership of the machine does not automatically transfer to the lessee at the end of the lease. Instead, the lessee has an option to acquire the machine from the lessor on 1/1/20X6 for CU1. Ex 3: Same as Ex 1 except economic life of the machine is five years and ownership of the machine does not transfer to the lessee at the end of the lease. 9
Section 20 – Lease classification Ex Ex 4: Same as Ex 1 except ownership does not transfers to lessee at the end of the lease. Instead lessee has an option to continue the lease asset for a further 5 years at a rent of CU1 per year. Ex 5: Same as Ex 1 except ownership transfers to the lessee at the end of the lease for a variable payment equal to the assets then fair value (instead of 23,539). 10
Section 20 – Lease classification Ex Ex 6: Tripartite lease agreement. –Lessor transfers substantially all risks & rewards to 2 unrelated parties: –the lessee obtains the right of use of the leased asset for a period of time; and –the other party contracts to acquire the leased asset from the lessor at the end of the lease term at a fixed price. 11
Section 20 – Lease classification Ex Ex 6 continued: Lease classification: –lessor = finance lease –lessee = operating lease –other party has firm commitment to acquire asset 12
13 The IFRS for SMEs Lessee (finance lease & operating lease)
14 Section 20 – Lessee: finance lease Initial recognition & measurement: –recognise assets (rights) & liabilities (obligations) at fair value of leased property or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments –add to asset the lessees incremental costs that are directly attributable to negotiating & arranging a lease
15 Section 20 – Lessee: finance lease continued Subsequent measurement: –apportion minimum lease payments between finance charge & liability using effective interest method –depreciate asset in accordance with relevant section (eg Section 17 PP&E)
Section 20 – Lessee: finance lease Ex Ex 7: Same as Ex 1. Finance lease obligation amortisation table: 16 1 Jan Finance cost Payment31 Dec 20X1100,0005,000(23,000)82,000 20X282,0004,100(23,000)63,100 20X363,1003,155(23,000)43,255 20X443,2552,163(23,000)22,418 20X522,4181,121(23,539)– 100,00015,539115,539
Section 20 – Lessee: finance lease Ex Ex 7 continued : 1/1/20X1 (initial recognition) recognise: –asset (PP&E) 100,000; and –liability (finance lease obligation) 100,000 For the year ended 31/12/20X1 recognise: –allocate payment of 23,000 (5,000 finance cost in profit or loss & 18,000 repayment of finance lease obligation) –CU10,000 depreciation expense in profit or loss and as a reduction to the asset 17
18 Section 20 – Lessee: finance lease continued Disclose: For each class of asset, the net carrying amount at reporting date Total FMLPs on reporting date, showing due (i) in 1 year but 5 years General description of significant leasing arrangements Also see Sections 17, 18, 27 and 34.
19 Section 20 – Lessee: operating lease Recognition & measurement: –expense lease payments on straight-line basis unless: –another systematic basis is more representative of the users benefit; or –payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation (based on published indexes or statistics).
Section 20 – Operating lease examples Ex 8: On 1/1/20X1 A entered into a 5-year non cancellable operating lease over a building. Rentals X1–X4 = 0. Rental X5 = 5,000. Ex 9: Same as Ex 8 except lessor agrees to pay the lessees relocation costs (ie 500) as an incentive to the lessee for entering into the new lease Ex 10: Operating lease payments increase by expected CPI (10% p.a.) to compensate the lessor for expected inflation. X1 = 1,000; X2 = 1,100; X3 = 1,210; etc 20
21 Section 20 – Lessee: operating lease Disclose: Total FMLPs for non-cancellable operating leases, showing due (i) in < 1 year; (ii) > 1 year but 5 years lease payments recognised as an expense a general description of the lessees significant leasing arrangements –including for example, information about contingent rent, renewal or purchase options and escalation clauses, subleases, and restrictions imposed by lease arrangements
22 The IFRS for SMEs Lessor (Finance Lease & Operating Lease)
23 Section 20 – Lessor: finance lease Initial recognition & measurement: –recognise assets held under a finance lease (a receivable) at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease (ie gross investment in the lease discounted at the interest rate implicit in the lease). The gross investment in the lease is the aggregate of: –(a) the minimum lease payments receivable by the lessor under a finance lease, and –(b) any unguaranteed residual value accruing to the lessor.
24 Section 20 – lessor: finance lease Subsequent measurement –recognise finance incomeconstant periodic rate of return on net investment in lease –apply lease payments against gross investment in the lease to reduce both the principal & the unearned finance income. –if indication that estimated unguaranteed residual value used in computing the lessors gross investment in lease has changed significantly, income allocation over lease term is revised, & reduction in respect of amounts accrued recognised immediately in profit/loss
25 Section 20 – Lessor: finance lease Other issues: Manufacturer or dealer lessors have 2 types of income: –profit or loss equivalent to the profit or loss resulting from an outright sale of the asset being leased, at normal selling prices, reflecting any applicable volume or trade discounts, and –finance income over the lease term. Disclosures (see paragraph 20.23)
26 Section 20 – Lessor: operating lease Recognition & measurement –lease payments as income on straight- line basis unless: –another systematic basis is more representative of the users benefit; or –payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation (based on published indexes or statistics) recognise other costs incurred in earning the lease income (eg depreciation)
Section 20 – Lessor: operating lease Examples Ex 11: On 1/1/20X1 A entered into a 5-yr non cancellable operating lease over a building. No rentals for 4 yrs. Rental for yr-5 = 5,000. Ex 12: Same as Ex 11 except lease payments increase by expected CPI (10% p.a.) to compensate the lessor for expected inflation. X1 = 1,000; X2 = 1,100; X3 = 1,210; etc 27
28 The IFRS for SMEs Sale and lease-back transactions (Finance Lease & Operating Lease)
29 Section 20 – Sale and leaseback A sale and leaseback transaction involves the sale of an asset and the leasing back of the same asset. –the lease payment & the sale price are usually interdependent because they are negotiated as a package –the accounting treatment of a sale and leaseback transaction depends on the type of lease (finance or operating).
30 Section 20 – Finance leaseback Recognition of sale & finance leaseback –the seller-lessee defers recognition of income (ie does not recognise any excess of sales proceeds over the carrying amount in profit or loss immediately) –Deferred income is recognised in profit or loss over the lease term
31 Section 20 – Operating leaseback Recognition of sale & operating leaseback by seller-lessee –if at FV, recognise profit or loss immediately –if SP < FV & lease payments not adjusted, recognise profit or loss immediately –if SP < FV & lease payments are adjusted, defer & amortise such loss in proportion to the lease payments over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. –If SP > FV defer the excess over fair value and amortise it over the period for which the asset is expected to be used.
Section 20 – Operating leaseback examples Ex 13: On 1/1/20X1 A sells a building (CA = 85,000) for 100,000 (fair value) & rents it back under a 3-yr operating lease. Lease rentals = 9,500 (payable yearly in arrears). On 31 January 20X1 the remaining economic life of the building was 25 years with nil residual value. 32
Section 20 – Operating leaseback examples Ex 14: Same as Ex 13 except SP = 95,000 & rentals = 7,800. Ex 15: Same as Ex 13 except SP = 80,000 & rentals = 2,800. 33
35 Section 29 – Introduction Section 29 is based on the IASBs March 2009 Exposure Draft, Income Tax. –Same temporary difference approach as in IAS 12 –Simpler explanation –Fewer exceptions
36 Section 29 – Scope and definitions Income tax defined –Income tax: All domestic and foreign tax based on taxable profit –Taxable profit = taxable income minus deductible amounts (a net amount) –Tax based on revenue income tax –Sales tax, VAT, tax on capital, and social security tax income tax –Income tax = tax rate x taxable profit
37 Section 29 – Other definitions Current tax: Amount of income tax payable/refundable based on taxable profit/loss for the current period or past periods Deferred tax: Tax payable/recoverable in the future period as a result of past transactions
38 Section 29 – Other definitions Tax basis: Measurement of asset, liability, or equity under the tax law on basis of sale Temporary difference: Difference in carrying amount of asset, liability, or other item in the financial statements and its tax basis – if entity expects the item will affect future taxable profit
39 Section 29 – Steps in accounting for income tax 1.Recognise current tax 2.Identify which assets and liabilities would affect taxable profit if recovered or settled for their carrying amounts 3.Determine tax basis of items in (2) plus other items that have a tax basis although not recognised (eg borrowing cost or R&D that is capitalised for tax purposes) 4.Compute temporary differences, unused tax losses, unused tax credits
40 Section 29 – Steps in accounting for income tax 5.Recognise deferred tax assets or liabilities arising from temporary differences 6.Measure deferred tax assets and liabilities –Use substantively enacted tax rates –Consider possible outcomes of a review by tax authorities 7.Valuation allowance against deferred tax assets (probable recovery) 8.Allocate current and deferred tax to related components of P&L, OCI, equity
41 Section 29 – Recognition of current tax Current Tax –Liability for any tax payable on current or prior taxable profit –Asset if overpayment is recoverable –Measure using tax law enacted or substantively enacted at reporting date –Current period expense or income, but if current tax relates to an item of OCI, that tax is presented as part of OCI
42 Section 29 – Recognition of current tax Example: Calculate Current Tax –Accounting profit 150,000, tax rate 15% –20,000 royalty income is tax exempt –5,000 meals expense is not deductible –Bad debt expense 2,500 included 500 estimate not deductible until write-off –Tax depreciation (accelerated) is 43,000, book depreciation is 35,000. What is current tax expense? continued...
43 Section 29 – Recognition of current tax Example: Calculate Current Tax (contd) Taxable profit: Accounting profit 150,000 Less nontaxable royalty (20,000) Plus nondeductible meals 5,000 Plus nondeductible bad debts 500 Less addl tax depreciation (8,000) Taxable Profit 127,500 Current tax = 15% x 127,500 = 19,125
44 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Deferred tax –Based on difference between amounts in balance sheet and tax basis of those items –If recovery of asset/liability will not affect taxable profit, no deferred tax –Tax basis = amount that would be deductible if asset were sold (or liability were settled) at end of reporting period for its carrying amount
45 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Deferred tax –Measure using enacted (or substantively enacted) tax rates –But use the rate base on expected income at the time of reversal of the temporary difference to calculate the expected effective tax rate
46 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Example: Calculate Deferred Tax –Accounting profit 150,000, tax rate 15% –20,000 royalty income is tax exempt –5,000 meals expense is not deductible –Bad debt expense 2,500 included 500 estimate not deductible until write-off –Tax depreciation (accelerated) is 43,000, book depreciation is 35,000. What is deferred tax expense? continued...
47 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Example: Calculate Deferred Tax (contd) Deferred tax asset – nondeductible bad debt: 500 x 15% = 75 Deferred tax liability – accelerated deprec: 8,000 x 15% = 1,200 Same jurisdiction, right of offset Deferred tax expense = 1,200 – 75 = 1,125 Deferred tax liability = 1,125 Total tax expense 19,125 + 1,125 = 20,250
48 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Example: Journal entry (reflects the last two examples) Income tax expense (19,25 + 1,125) 20,250 Taxes currently payable19,125 Deferred tax liability1,125
49 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Example: Graduated tax rates –Temporary difference arises 7,500 in 20X1, expected to reverse in 20X3 –Tax rate 15% on first 500,000 of profit, 25% on excess over 500,000 –Taxable profit 20X1 = 400,000 –Expected taxable profit 20X3 = 600,000 –Effective tax rate 20X3 = (500,000 x 15%) + (100,000 x 25%) = 100,000/600,000 = 16.67% –Deferred tax liability 20X1 = 16.67% x 7,500 = 1,250
50 Section 29 – Temporary differences Temporary differences –Can arise on initial recognition of an asset or liability –Can arise after initial recognition because income/expense is recognised in P&L in one period and in taxable profit in a different period –Can arise when tax basis of asset or liability changes but changes will never affect the carrying amount
51 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Recognise (a few exceptions – next slide): –Deferred tax liability for all temporary differences that will increase taxable profit in the future –Deferred tax asset for all temporary differences that will reduce taxable profit in the future –Deferred tax asset for tax loss and tax credit carryforwards
52 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Exceptions to recognition: –No deferred tax for temporary differences associated with unremitted earnings of foreign sub, associate, JV –No deferred tax for temporary difference associated with initial recognition of goodwill
53 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Example: 25% owned associate, equity method used for books, ordinary tax rate 30%, capital gains tax rate 0% –Cost 10,000 –Equity method income year 1 = 1,000 –Temporary difference = 1,000 –Deferred tax liability = 0% x 1,000 = 0 –Taxable dividend received = 200 –Current tax expense = 30% x 200 = 60 –End of year 1 carrying amount = 10,800
54 Section 29 – Recognition of deferred tax Changes in deferred tax liabilities / assets: –Recognised in P&L (or in OCI if it relates to an item of OCI) Example using data in slide 46: Tax rate now increases to 20%, deferred tax asset and liability not yet reversed. –Deferred tax liability is 1,125 –Def tax liab should be 20% x 7,500 = 1,500 –Tax expense charged to P&L = 375
55 Section 29 – Measurement of deferred tax Use tax rate that has been enacted or substantively enacted If different rates apply to different types of income, use rate the entity expects to pay only if deductions would be the same if sell or use Valuation allowance against tax assets: –Net carrying amount = probable recovery –Review carrying amount each period
56 Section 29 – Measurement of deferred tax Example: Valuation allowance –31/12/X1 temporary differences of 120 available to reduce future taxable profit –Cannot be carried back –Of the 120, based on forecasts of future profits, only 30 has > 50% likelihood to be utilised –Tax rate 20% Journal entry at 31/12/X1DebitCredit Deferred tax asset [120 x 20%]24 Valuation allowance [(120 - 30) x 20%]18 Income tax benefit – deferred tax (P&L)6
57 Section 29 – Measurement of deferred tax Do not discount current or deferred taxes Uncertainty in measuring both deferred tax assets and liabilities: –Use probability-weighted average amount of all possible outcomes, assuming tax authorities know all facts If different tax rates apply to undistributed and distributed income, accrue at undistributed rate initially –Adjust through P&L when distributed
58 Section 29 – Presentation Classification: –All deferred tax assets and liabilities as non-current Offsetting: –Do not offset current tax assets and liabilities or deferred tax assets and liabilities unless entity has legal right to offset and it intends either to settle net or simultaneously
59 Section 29 – Disclosure Disclose major components of tax expense: –Current tax expense (income) –Adjustments to current tax of prior periods –Deferred tax expense (income) relating to: –New or reversing temporary differences –Changes in tax rates or new taxes –Effects of changes in uncertainty –Changes in valuation allowance –Tax expense relating to changes in accounting policies or errors
60 Section 29 – Disclosure Other disclosures: –Current and deferred tax relating to items of OCI –Explanation of significant differences in amounts in P&L and amounts reported to tax authorities –Changes in tax rates continued next slide...
61 Section 29 – Disclosure Other disclosures (continued): –For each type of temporary difference and unused tax loss and tax credit: –Amount of deferred tax and valuation allowance at end of period –Analysis of changes in deferred tax and valuation allowance during period –Expiry date of temporary differences and unused tax losses and tax credits –Explanation if payment of undistributed earnings will have a tax impact
63 This presentation may be modified from time to time. The latest version may be downloaded from: http://www.ifrs.org/Conferences+and+Workshops/IFRS+for+SMEs+Train+ the+trainer+workshops.htm The accounting requirements applicable to small and medium sized entities (SMEs) are set out in the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) for SMEs, which was issued by the IASB in July 2009. The IFRS Foundation, the authors, the presenters and the publishers do not accept responsibility for loss caused to any person who acts or refrains from acting in reliance on the material in this PowerPoint presentation, whether such loss is caused by negligence or otherwise.