3 Also known as Republic of South Africa Physical Maps
4 1500s: Europeans begin exploring and trading takes place. History1500s: Europeans begin exploring and trading takes place.1700s: Colonization by the Dutch and slavery continue. Protestant Missionary is established.1600s: European's settle in South Africa for the first time and begin to further colonize and trade. Slavery begins.1500s: Portuguese travelers and explorers begin to explore South Africa. Portuguese cartographer Manuel de Mesquita Perestrelo gives the first detailed draws a map of the coast. The Dutch and the English begin to make routine stops and begin to trade with the native peoples. In the 1600s the Europeans settle in South Africa.. The Dutch East India Company establishes a refreshment station at Table Bay, South Africa. The purpose of this refreshment place is to provide fresh meat, vegetables, fruits, and water for passing ships en route to India. Maize seeds are brought from the Netherlands and new plantations were built. The new farms needed to grow these new crops needed slaves to work. Wars begin between natives and Dutch. Natives lose. The 1700s brings more expansion and colonization. Slaves are trying to revolt and rebel from the Dutch. The first slave market is established. A protestant missionary is then established in South Africa for the indigenous peoples and the slave trade is now booming.\. By the 1800s, established a newspaper in Cape Town as well as other businesses.. More wars between the natives and the colonists continue.. In the 1900s, the settlers and natives were tired of rule and after fighting wars, South Africa gained independence. The apartheid government began, which was ruled by white minorities and they took away the rights of the African natives. In the sixties, Nelson Mandela was engaged in resistance against the ruling National Party's apartheid policies. After Mandela protested, he was tried and found guilty of treason. He went to jail for several years. He wanted equal rights for everyone in South Africa and he was eventually elected president in 1994.1900s: Gain independence and Nelson Mandela fought for equal rights against apartheid government.1800s: Control is turned over to England. They colonize more and set up businesses. Wars continue.
5 Historical Figures Jan van Riebeeck Nelson Mandela Jan Smuts Jan van Riebeeck: he volunteered to take command of the Dutch settlement in South Africa and founded Cape TownNelson mandela: Nationalist leader and statesmanJan Smuts: Defense minister in WWI and WWII. Signed both peace treaties after both wars at the paris peace conferences.Jan van RiebeeckNelson MandelaJan Smuts
6 Historical Places Battlefields Route Robben Island Cradle of Humankind Nelson Mandela was imprisoned at Robben Island for 27 years.Battle Fields Route: the famous battle sites of the Anglo-Boer and Anglo-Zulu warsApartheid Museum: Starting in 1948, the white elected National Party government implemented the policy of apartheid which turned 20 million people into second class citizens, condemning them to a life of servitude, humiliation and abuse. This museum illustrates South Africa’s past violence and civil rights movementsCradle of Humankind: one of the richest fossil sites in the world. Fossilized footprints and the wealth of rock paintings, the Drakensberg mountains and elsewhere, all testify to humanity's origins on this ancient continent.Cradle of HumankindApartheid Museum
7 Cradle of Humankind (Northwest of Johannesburg) Apartheid Museum (Johannesburg)Robben Island (Off coast of Cape Town)Battlefields Route (province of Kwazulu Natal)
8 Khosian peoples preparing for a ritual Religions80% ChristianIndigenous:Khosian peoplesReligions vary in south Africa and in the last 20 years the government has encouraged Christianity. Most of the Christians are Protestants.Khosian peoples: very complicated. fear one supreme power .They believed that one supreme power controlled the whole world. Rituals and small sacrifices were done by the Khoisan people. They also feared an evil being which is the reason for pain and misery.A large majority of population is Christian or follows the Khosian practices.Khosian peoples preparing for a ritual
9 GovernmentConstitutional democracy with a three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary.National, Provincial, and Local3 Capitals: Bloemfontein, Pretoria, and Cape TownParliamentNational Assembly and National Council of ProvincesPresident and the CabinetBloemfontein: judicial capital, or where the country's highest court meetsPretoria: administrative government capitalCape Town: legislative government capitalParliament: Legislative authority. two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces.President: elected by national assembly. executive Head of State and leads the Cabinet. The President may not serve more than two five-year terms in office. Cabinet: consists of the President, the Deputy President and 25 Ministers. The President appoints the Deputy President and Ministers
11 Food Mageu Braais Bitlong Skop Melktart Mageu: drink made from fermented mealie pap.Braais: barbecue" or "grill" and is a social custom with lots of spicy meatsBitlong: strips of dried meat with various flavors and types. Sort of like beef jerky.Skop: head of a cow, sheep, or goatMelktart: sweet pastry crust containing a creamy filling made from milk, flour, sugar and eggs.
12 Traditional Clothing Vibrant colors Beaded accessories Cheetah skin Ndebeles people2 piece animal hide skirt usually made from buck hideAnkle and wrist bead wear is also commonMen in power (of the tribes) wear cheetah skinsNdebeles: wind copper around entire bodiesPicture of shoe made from beads
13 Ethnicity Hundreds of native ethnicities Government divided ethnicities into four major racial categories:Black Africans, Whites, Coloreds, and IndiansThis system was abolished in 1991, but many people still go by thisColoreds: mixed white and black descendantsNatives: Khoi-San, Xhosa, Zulu, Ndebele, Sotho, Shangaan and Venda are the largest native groups
14 HolidaysAfter the apartheid government fell, holidays that would be meaningful to South Africans were created:Human Rights DayFreedom DayHeritage DayDay of ReconciliationHuman rights day: 1960 the police killed 70 people at Sharpeville who were participating in a protest against the passing of some new laws. The carnage made world headlines. Four days later the government banned black political organizations, many leaders were arrested or went into exileFreedom Day: day to celebrate when in 1994 the first democratic election was held in South Africa and in 1997 when the new constitution took effect.Heritage Day: a day to celebrate South Africa’s diverse cultures, customs, traditions, histories, and languages.Day of reconciliation: a day to focus on overcoming the conflicts of the past and building a new nation.
15 Economy GDP: 357.3 billion in U.S. $ Inflation: 4.9% Unemployment Rate: 24%$1 = 7.85 Rand1 Rand = $0.13Rich in mineral resourcesLabor has undergone a massive changeIt is the world's largest producer and exporter of platinum; is a significant producer of gold, manganese, chrome, coal and diamonds. Also exports many agricultural products like maize, meats, tobacco, cotton, and sugar. Other key industries: mining, automobile assembly, machinery, textiles, chemicals, and commercial ship repairs. Labor has changed dramatically after the inequalities of the apartheid era. Many more workers could do more jobs and they were allowed to become more educated and skilled laborers.