Presentation on theme: "PERIOD 4: 1800–1848 The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes."— Presentation transcript:
1 PERIOD 4: 1800–1848The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial, and demographic changes.Chapter 8Updated 3/2015
3 The Industrial Revolution was a time of dramatic change, from hand tools and handmade items, to products which were mass produced by machines.
4 Workers became more productive, and since more items were manufactured, prices dropped, making exclusive and hard to make items available to the poor, not only the rich and elite.
5 Life generally improved, but the industrial revolution also proved harmful Pollution increased, working conditions were dangerous, and capitalists employed women and young children, making them work long and hard hours.
7 The industrial revolution was a time of change, for better or worse.
8 Pre-Industrial Age China further advanced than Europe They used gunpowder, silk, linen, cotton, spices, and the compassEurope does not catch up until the Age of Exploration (1500)
9 Pre-Industrial AgeEuropeans and Americans grew their own food, made their own clothing and household items, and rarely traveled more than 10 miles from home
10 Pre-Industrial Age Energy used was wind, water, people and animals Coal could be burned for fuel but it wasn’t possible to mine deeply into the ground
11 Pre-Industrial AgeMaterials used for products included wood, wool, and precious metalsIron could be produced but it was expensive, brittle, and a slow processPig Iron Molds
12 Agricultural Revolution By 1600, the world was experiencing changes in the production of foodNew techniques were introduced - fertilizers, crop rotation, flood control and irrigationLess people were needed to grow more crops
13 Cottage IndustriesPeople bartered extra goods with neighbors, or in the nearest villageOver time, cottage industries arose, in which a family would produce 1 product (start to finish)They traded this product for other items they needed
14 Pre-Industrial Cities Centers for government and tradeUnhealthyLack of sanitationFire hazardsContagious diseases
15 Industrial Revolution By the early 1700s, conditions in England were right for an industrial revolutionStable governmentFood supplyPopulation increaseEducation/innovation encouraged by the Enlightenment
16 Industrial Revolution Begins with the textile industryProcess of making clothingGather fibers from plants or sheepSpin yarn from fibersWeave cloth from yarnDye cloth with native materialsCut cloth to sizeSew pieces together and add fasteners hand-made from wood or metals
17 Industrialization of the Textile Industry In 1733, the flying shuttle was invented by John KayIt wove fabric using a machine that wove more than one strand at a timeSpinners were needed to keep up with the weaversSpinsters were hired
18 IndustrializationIn 1765, the spinning jenny was invented by J. Hargreaves - it could spin 100 threads at a timeSpinners spun 1 thread at a time, using a spinning wheel
19 Industrialization of the Textile Industry In 1790, a water powered spinning jenny was inventedIt no longer fit in the homeLaborers needed to be hired to work in the factoriesCapital was needed to build factoriesFactories had to be located near water
21 Industrialization of the Textile Industry Adults did not want to work in factoriesTo fill the shortfall, factories bought paupers, or orphans to work in their factories
22 The Spread of the Industrial Revolution Products and patents were sold abroadImmigrants brought ideas to new countriesEspionage was common
23 Key Concept 4.2:Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods.
24 I. A global market and communications revolution, influencing and influenced by technological innovations, led to dramatic shifts in the nature of agriculture and manufacturing.
25 A. Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets.
27 Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low skilled male workers, no longer relied on semi-subsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets,even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing.
28 Required terms: Lowell system Baldwin Locomotive Works Anthracite coal miningWhat/WhoImportanceWhat/WhoImportanceWhat/WhoImportance
29 The Spread of the Industrial Revolution Samuel Slater memorized the plans for a textile mill before leaving EnglandWhen he came to the USA, he built an improved version in Pawtucket, RISlater Factory
30 The Spread of the Industrial Revolution Factories in Lowell, Mass recruited farmers’ daughtersFurnished them with dormitories and eating facilitiesBootmill in Lowell, Mass
31 Innovations to Farming The most wide-ranging effect came from the invention of the cotton ginIt furthered the industrialization of the textile industry by making cotton readily available
32 Innovations to Farming Invented in 1794 by Eli Whitney, it had many effects on the countryMade cotton more profitablePlanters changed to growing cotton exclusivelyPlanter sought new land, settled Alabama, Mississippi, and LouisianaIncreased dependency on slavery
33 Innovations to Manufacturing Principles of manufacturing textiles were soon applied to many products, from household items to military armsEli Whitney developed the idea of manufacturing interchangeable parts in 1798This increased the speed of production and the ease of repairing machinery
34 Energy & Transportation In 1705 a steam pump was invented for pumping water out of the minesIn 1760, James Watts invented the first potable, or commercial steam engine
35 Energy & Transportation In 1805, the 1st successful steam boat was built by Robert FultonVery practical for transporting people and goods upriverThe Clermont
36 Energy & Transportation In 1810, Macadam was invented in ScotlandTurnpikes soon followed(1st section of PA Turnpike completed in 1822)
37 Energy & Transportation In 1811 work began in the USA on the Cumberland RoadIt started in Maryland and stretched west (It is now part of route 40)
38 Energy & Transportation In 1825, the 1st successful locomotive was invented by George Stephenson
39 Energy & Transportation Within 25 years, tracks were crisscrossing England, America, and the ContinentStations became town centers
40 Energy & Transportation Canals were important transportation marvelsThe Erie Canal stretched from Lake Erie to Albany, NYCost of freight from Cincinnati to New York City went from $100 a ton to $10Perishable goods became available further from farms and processing plants
42 Key Concept 4.1 (I)C. With the acceleration of a national and international market economy, Americans debated the scope of government’s role in the economy, while diverging economic systems meant that regional political and economic loyalties often continued to overshadow national concerns.D. Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution.
43 Capitalism Economic system based on profit Supply and demand determine what will be manufactured, when, and at what priceDepends on entrepreneurs for successGovernment plays a limited role
44 Monetary SystemBartering no longer practical – more money needed in circulationGovernment used “specie”,coins from precious metals – value dependent on value of metals they containedBanks took specie deposits but used bank notes for currency – theoretically bank notes could be redeemed for specie
45 2nd Bank of the USA Established after War of 1812 Privately owned Repository for government gold & silverSupposed to have conservative lending policies to improve the banking systemInstead made speculative loans to western banks – loaned 10X as much as depositsRecovered but halted most loans to the west, making it advantageous to eastern manufacturers
46 Banking System in USAAll banks except for the Bank of the USA were independently ownedVirtually no banking regulations until the 1930sMany banks failed or experienced severe shortages; led to several recessions
47 LaborPeople were used to being self-employed and did not want to work in factoriesFactories attracted workers by advertising and providing lodgingSingle females from farming families became “Lowell Girls”Later replaced by new immigrantsMiddle class of managers and investors began to emergeLabor unions were formed to protect rights of laborers.
49 Sectional Differences The Northern Section The Northwest (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota) depended on agriculture and agricultural processingThe Northeast (New England and the middle states) depended on manufacturing and trade
50 II. Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy.
51 The Northern SectionThe Northwest was influenced by the climate and fertile soil of the regionOnce the mechanical reaper and steel tipped plow were invented, farming became a major industryAgricultural products like whiskey and beer made preservation of grains easierFeeding grains to animals provided farmers with both meat and fat; keeping the animals alive until slaughter preserved the meat
52 The Northern Section Cincinnati was a center for hog slaughtering Cities in the Northwest grew up around the agricultural processing industryCincinnati was a center for hog slaughteringChicago would grow around the cattle industryGrand Rapids would grow around the cereal / grain industry
53 The Northern SectionGoods from the Northwest were transported primarily by waterThey could be floated down-river on the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi to New Orleans and the Gulf of MexicoGoods could also be transported across the Great Lakes to the Erie Canal, to the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean
54 The Northern SectionWhile many people continued to farm in the Northeast, more and more people moved into urban areasThe Northeast was the 1st area of the country to become industrializedThey depended on food and natural resources from other areas to surviveTheir economy revolved around the trade of processed foods and manufactured goods
55 The Northern SectionTextile mills and their surrounding towns grew up in Rhode Island and MassachusettsEli Whitney built a manufacturing plant in Connecticut to make rifles based on his system of interchangeable partsOther plants produced furniture, clocks, glass and tinware
56 The Northern SectionIn Lowell, Mass young ladies earned $3.25 for a 72-hour weekThey were charged $1.25 for room and board, leaving them $2.00 for basic necessitiesThat is the equivalent of earning $69.14 per week today!
57 The Growth of CitiesBetween 1810 and 1840, the percentage of people living in cities doubled from 6% to 12%Approximately 500,000 people lived in Manhattan in 1850Public institutions like hospitals and schools became more important as people no longer lived with extended families
58 The Growth of CitiesCities developed neighborhoods for the rich and poorPoor people lived near industrial centers in overcrowded tenementsWealthy people lived ‘uptown’ in cleaner neighborhoods with parks and multistoried townhouses
59 Key Concept 4.1 (II.)A. Southern cotton furnished the raw material for manufacturing in the Northeast, while the growth in cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade
60 Southern Farming Varied from large plantations to small farms Fertile soil, long growing season, and humidity made agriculture attractiveInvestment in industry was minimalCities were generally ports
61 The Cotton Belt Delaware Maryland Virginia North Carolina South CarolinaGeorgiaKentuckyTennesseeAlabamaMississippiLouisianaTexasArkansas
62 The Southern Section Cotton was ‘king’ Pounds of raw cotton produced: millionmillion (doubled)exceeded 1billion
63 The Southern Section Cotton was ‘king’ Slaves investments Slave laws became more restrictiveSlaves were illegally imported
64 Southern Economy 100% of cotton was grown in the south More than 80% of the cotton was exported to England and New EnglandMost cargo ships were built in the north; most commercial trade enterprises were from the north
65 B. Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South.American System:
66 The WestFrontier was west of Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi RiverTennessee, Kentucky, OhioIndependent frontiersmenNeeded infrastructure to get goods to marketProduced food crops – sold to South and NorthJackson (Tennessee) Clay (Kentucky)
67 Part 3 Era of Good Feelings to 2nd Party System
68 The Growth of Nationalism National pride was strengthened after the War of 1812Era of Good Feeling ( )Americans began to respect their own unique cultureAmerica would continue to grow geographically, economically and militarily
69 Foreign PolicyAfter the War of 1812, relations with Great Britain improved tremendouslyDuring the Napoleonic Wars, Spain lost several colonies in Latin AmericaGreat Britain wanted those countries to remain independent and the USA wanted to keep European countries away from our shores
70 Foreign PolicyPresident Monroe and his Sec. of State, John Q. Adams, wrote the Monroe DoctrineCountries that were already independent would remain that wayEuropean countries could keep their existing coloniesUSA would stay out of affairs in EuropeMonroe Doctrine backed by the British navy!
71 Era of Good Feeling 1816-1824 1 political party economic prosperity Exception – Panic of 1819
72 1820 was the last election of the Era of Good Feelings Interesting facts:Monroe ran for his 2nd term unopposedOut of 235 electoral votes, Monroe received 2311 elector voted for J.Q. Adams so that Washington would be the only one voted in unanimously3 electors died before the vote and couldn’t be replaced in time1820 was the last election of the Era of Good Feelings
73 Election of 1824 Four major candidates vied for the presidency Democratic-RepublicansJohn Quincy Adams, (Mass)Henry Clay, (Kentucky)John C. Calhoun (South Carolina)General Andrew Jackson (Tennessee)
74 Election of 1824 Ended Era of Good Feelings The Democratic-Republicans split into:National RepublicansJacksonian Democrats
75 Election of 1824 Jackson won plurality, not majority House of Representatives decided the winner after many votesCorrupt bargain – Clay withdrew and supported JQAJQA appointed Clay his Sec. of State
76 National Power John Quincy Adams national program for the arts and sciencesObservatoryLibraryMuseumsahead of his time; many would be authorized after his term
77 The American System Henry Clay Government should build infrastructure bridges, roads, canalsProtective tariffsSupported by many businessmenOpponents did not want to pay taxes for programs that did not directly benefit themFew of his programs were passed in Congress
78 Election of 1828John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson again squared offJackson had the support of Congress and the new western statesFor the first time, there were over 1 million votersNew states had entered, the population grew, and property requirements were dropped
79 “The Peoples’ President” Jackson capitalized on his war record and his tough childhoodBy the time of the election, he was a wealthy plantation ownerHe endured a scandal involving his wife, RachelShe died immediately before he took office
80 Andrew Jackson participated in many duels Andrew Jackson participated in many duels. He was shot at least twice as a result of dueling. While President, one of Jackson's strongest supporters was Thomas Benton, a United States Senator who shot Jackson 20 years earlier.
81 “The Peoples’ President” After Jackson won in 1828, he invited the common people to his inauguration party!
82 “The Peoples’ President” Patronage – Spoils System“To the victor goes the spoils”Jackson appointed his supporters to positions of authorityGood idea or a bad one?
84 King AndrewJackson had long advocated a limited role for the national governmentHe vetoed more legislation than the previous 6 presidents combined
85 Peggy Eaton Affair Previously married Husband died in the navy – questions about suicideRumor that she was having an affair with John Eaton (Sec. of the War)Married Eaton after husband’s deathV.P. Calhoun’s wife refused to socialize with herSplit sides Peggy’s supporters (Pres. Jackson) and detractors (VP Calhoun)
86 Tariffs and Nullification Tariff of AbominationsPassed during JQA’s presidencyMay have been passed by Jackson supporters to embarrass JQAHigh, protective tariffs benefiting N.E.Hurt South – consumers and exporters
87 Tariffs and Nullification (1832-1833) South Carolina Exposition and Proteststates could nullify federal laws if they were unconstitutionalthey could secede if they desiredsecretly written by V.P. Calhoun in 1828; adopted by SC legislature in 1832
88 “The Toast” 1830 – Tensions between Jackson and Calhoun escalated Celebration of Jefferson’s Birthday, Jackson gave a toast“Our Union – it must be preserved”Taken as direct insult to Calhoun
89 Webster – Hayne Debate - 1830 Started as a debate on selling western landsDaniel Webster of Massachusetts vs. Robert Haynes of South CarolinaNortherners wanted to keep cheap laborers from moving West; Southerners wanted to continue expanding West and form an alliance with new Western statesDebate continued about state vs. federal control
90 Compromise Tariff of 1833 Proposed by Henry Clay Reduced or eliminated tariffsAccepted by SouthernersEnded tariff crisis but did not resolve the issues of nullification or secession
91 Efforts to exploit the nation’s natural resources led to government efforts to promote free and forced migration of various American peoples across the continent, as well as to competing ideas about defining and managing labor systems, geographical boundaries, and natural resources.**Gold found in Georgia & North Carolina resulted in the Trail of Tears
92 Force Act of 1833 Proposed by Jackson Passed the same day as the Compromise TariffFederal troops would be used to enforce federal laws and collect tariffs, if necessarySouth Carolina then nullified the Force Act!
93 The Bank War Jackson vowed to destroy the 2nd Bank of the USA Because it was 80% privately owned, the bank could make decisions that benefited one group over othersIn 1832, Nicholas Biddle requested the bank’s charter be renewed (4 years early)Although it passed in Congress, Jackson vetoed it
95 The Bank WarJackson then withdrew all of the deposits of the United States government and deposited them in ‘pet banks’The dissatisfied members of the National Republican Party started the WhigsIn 1836, Jackson supported his V.P., Martin Van Buren
96 Specie Circular - 1836 Executive order by Jackson Land speculation and paper money were causing rampant inflationPublic lands had to be purchased with gold or silverContributed to Panic of 1837Left mess to “Van Ruin” to deal with
97 The Indian Crisis Causes: 1829 gold was found in Georgiamore land was needed for cotton“The only good Indian is a dead Indian”Only the 5 civilized tribes remained in the SoutheastThe Cherokee had adopted the white culture and were successful farmers, lawyers, teachers, etc.
98 Indian Removal ActLand in Indian Territory was to be exchanged for the tribal lands in the southeastGeorgia enacted laws that allowed them to confiscate landCherokee fought the removal in court1831 – Cherokee Nation V. GeorgiaCourt ruled that it did not have the authority to overturn Georgia’s lawsRuled that Cherokee were not a foreign power and had no standing in court1832 – Worchester v. Georgia (brought by Worchester, a non-indian)Court ruled that Cherokee were a separate, sovereign nation based on treaties with USAGeorgia was infringing on federal authority when they attempted to confiscate Cherokee land“John Marshall made his decision. Now let him enforce it.”
99 The Indian Crisis 1835 – Treaty of New Enchota Small group of Indians signed treaty on behalf of all of them and started to move west1838- US Army forcibly marched 15,000 to Indian TerritoryThe journey of 1000 miles took 116 daysThe ‘Trail of Tears’ ended with 25% of the Indians dead from disease, exhaustion, and cold
101 The Indian UprisingsBlack Hawk War occurred in the Illinois Territory in 1831The Fox & Sauk Indians were hunted down and killed in WisconsinThe 2nd Seminole War lasted from 1835 to 1842In the end, only a few hundred Seminole survived by hiding deep in the Everglades
102 Election of 1840 William Henry Harrison ran his log-cabin campaign Died 1 month after taking officeJohn Tyler became president but was in conflict with Congress over his role - Constitution was not clear about the succession of presidents
103 Key Concept 4.2 III. The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power.
104 With the opening of canals and new roads into the western territories, native-born white citizens relocated westward, relying on new community systems to replace their old family and local relationships.Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest.The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections, while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth.
105 The market revolution helped to widen a gap between rich and poor, shaped emerging middle and working classes,and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace,which led to dramatic transformations in gender and in family roles and expectations.Regional interests continued to trump national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’ positions on economic issues includingslaverythe national banktariffsinternal improvements.
106 Required terms: Cult of domesticity Lydia Maria Child Early labor unionsWhat/WhoImportanceWhat/WhoImportanceWhat/WhoImportance