Infant Development Physical Growth Holding an Infant Feeding an Infant
Infants From the time a child is born until it turns one year old, it is considered an infant During the first month of its life, a baby is referred to as a newborn
Holding a Baby When babies are born, they do not have the muscle strength required to hold their own heads up http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jNShGmf8NY
Holding a Baby You hold a baby across your chest, supporting his/her head and neck with your wrist and arm. Practice now holding your baby and supporting the baby’s head and neck
Holding a Baby You should hold your baby firmly but not tightly Babies want to feel secure and cuddled, but not smothered. You should keep all clothing and blankets away from the babies face. Be mindful of any jewelry or scented lotions you may have on.
Holding a Baby Babies startle easily to quick movements, so when picking up a baby you should move slowly and quietly.
Trust vs. Mistrust Infants will learn a basic trust for the world during the first 2 years of life The development of this trust depends on the consistency of the caregiver during this time period Success in this stage (learning a basic trust for the world) will lead to a sense of hope
Trust vs. Mistrust Consistently taking care of a child’s needs will lead to a sense of trust Ex. Picking up a baby and feeding or soothing as it cries Consistently ignoring a child’s needs will lead to a sense of mistrust Ex. Consistently NOT picking up a crying infant http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Activity Find a group of 3 Begin to use the resource babycenter.com to answer the 12 top reasons babies cry and appropriate responses as a caregiver. Remember to sign out your computers
Feeding Infants eat exclusively liquids for the first 6 months of life Infants will drink either breast milk or synthetic breast milk called formula. Baby’s CANNOT have cow’s milk
Feeding There are many health benefits to a baby who is breastfed Breastfed babies receive antibodies from the mother’s body and build up a stronger immune system Breast milk is naturally antibacterial Breast milk is naturally high in healthy fats that help in brain development
Feeding For mother’s who choose to formula feed, they must make each bottle by mixing the formula powder with water Breast milk can be frozen or refrigerated after it has been used, but formula may not.
Feeding Infants begin eating solid food at 6 months The first food an infant will eat is rice cereal Infants can then begin eating fruits and vegetables that have been steamed and pureed
Feeding New foods should be introduced once a week to avoid allergic reactions Foods known to cause food allergies should be avoided until the baby is at least one year old.
High Allergy Foods Nuts- especially peanuts Dairy (milk protein) Strawberries Citrus Fruits like oranges Shellfish Infants should not have any of these items until after the first year of life
Feeding In addition, infants should not have honey until after the first year of life for fear of botulism exposure
Feeding When warming a bottle or baby food, you should NEVER use the microwave Microwaves create hot spots that can burn an infant’s mouth.
Feeding When giving an infant a bottle, you should sit them in a reclining position if you still need to support the neck After giving a bottle, you will need to burp the baby to get rid of any excess air that was swallowed.
Reflexes Infants have certain reflexes when born Reflexes are reactions that happen automatically
Breathing Reflex Infants have a reflex to inhale and exhale Infants do not have to be reminded or taught to breathe
Sucking Reflex Infants have a reflex to suck anything that touches their lips A newborn’s reflex to suck is very strong If you put your finger into a newborn’s mouth, the sucking reflex is so strong it may actually be a bit painful
Rooting Reflex Infants have the reflex to “root” for a food source Rooting means that the infant will turn toward anything that brushes its cheek in an attempt to find a food source
Physical Growth Newborns are born and need to adjust to living outside of the womb Newborns have a very short range of distance where they are able to see clearly Newborns are startled by loud noises or quick movements Newborns are sensitive to lights and temperatures
Physical Growth Infants will one and a half in length and triple in weight from birth to the first year Ex. A baby who is born 8 lbs. and 20” long will weigh 24 lbs. at a year and measure 30” Most of the weight gain is due to muscle and organ growth
One month At one month, infants can hold their heads up for a few seconds at a time They can also turn their heads side to side when lying on their stomachs
3 months At 3 months, infants can control the movement of their arms and legs They may be able to push up off their chests and hold up their heads They can grasp objects in their hands and drop them
Six months Infants 6-7 months can sit up without help or support They may begin to crawl or creep on their knees They may be able to pull themselves up to a standing position They develop the “pincher grasp”
Around 10 months At around 10 months infants begin to creep, cruise, or walk They may also scoot on their bottoms, bear walk, or roll over to get where they want to be
Physical Growth All babies will grow and develop at their own pace. Babies are put on a scale from 0-100% to give a general idea of how their size ranks Gross and fine motor skills may develop differently in each child
Activity Please complete the physical growth activity for your child