4 Capacity is the ability of people, organisations and society as a whole to manage their affairs successfully. Capacity development is the process whereby people, organisations and society as a whole unleash, strengthen, create, adapt and maintain capacity over time. Promotion of capacity development refers to what outside partners can do to support, facilitate or catalyse capacity development and related change processes. DAC GOVNET (2005) The Challenge of Capacity Development: Working Towards Good Practice Definitions about CD
5 Key Concepts of CD (1) - Endogenous Process - Capacity (Capital) Existing Capacity (Ability to manage own affairs) 1990s- Capacity Development Technology Investment Knowledge -1970s: Technical Transfer 80-90s: Capacity Building Technology Investment Knowledge CD is an endogenous process and external actors can only facilitate the process as an catalyst.
6 Knowledge A Knowledge C DonorPartner Country Transfer of Knowledge DonorPartner Country Knowledge Creation Knowledge B Knowledge A Knowledge A
7 Perception Change Import external ones Technical transfer Donor driven Supplier Knowledge creation Based on the existing --- Local ownership Facilitator / Catalyst
8 Individual level Organizational level Societal level All three levels of capacity are equally important and mutually interdependent. Key Concepts of CD (2) - Systems Perspective -
9 Partners set the agenda Aligning with partners agenda Using partners systems Establishing common arrangements Simplifying procedures Sharing information Harmonization (Donor – Donor) Alignment ( Partner country – donor) Ownership ( Partner country) Aid Effectiveness
10 The Capacity to plan, manage, implement, and account for results of policies and programmes, is critical for achieving development objectives from analysis and dialogue through implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Capacity development is the responsibility of partner countries with donors playing a support role. It needs not only to be based on sound technical analysis, but also to be responsive to the broader social and economic environment, including the need to strengthen human resources. Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005)
12 JICA Tanzania/Japan s ODA The office has been established in 1980. Our strengths: Quick actions and Long commitment! Various menu of aid approaches! Excellent track record! in the infra., agriculture, health, etc. Capacity development approach!
13 Development progress and challenges in Tanzania (1) Our observation Policy/budget dialogs strengthened between Treasury and line ministries Public financial management system improved Brilliant record especially in the social sector triggered by the budget supports
14 Development progress and challenges in Tanzania (2) Reforms are going on in the local level. But, severe lack of capacity in the local 4 gaps between the central and the local; Human resources Knowledge and information Money Reform mind Challenges remained in the central despite the progress
15 Our aid approach Multi-layer approach broadly to tackle capacity issues The central Gov. Local Gov. Authorities CBO, Private partners Top-down Bottom-up GBS, Common pool Project Policy advise/dialog Strengthening capacity of LGAs JICA/JAPAN
16 Aid priority areas Good Governance & accountability Growth & reduction of income poverty Improved quality of life & social well-being MKUKUTA / NSGRP Poverty Reduction Pro-poor oriented Broad-based growth oriented Agriculture Infrastructure Health Education Local Gov. reform Public financial management MKUKUTA monitoring
17 IndividualsOrganizationSociety Public Sector Private Sector Civil Society Partnership with multilateral institution Partnership for CD Partnership with bilateral organization JICA project A Partnership with NGO JICA project B JICA Program
18 Development Partnership Japan/JICA Contribution Japan/JICA accepted as a full partner in aid coordination by both GoT and donors The active participation/contribution to aid coordination at the levels of both macro (GBS/Poverty Monitoring etc.) & Sectors (Edu/Health/PFM/Roads etc.) Leading role in Agriculture SWAps (ASDP) The provision of Grant Aid to GBS (JPY 5.45 million/JFY04) poverty monitoring CB (Only one case in the world at the moment) Better coordinated project execution in pursuing stronger impact and lower transaction cost