Presentation on theme: "Sectionalism Issue: Should the price of Western land be High or Low?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sectionalism Issue: Should the price of Western land be High or Low? North: HIGH This would prevent northern workers from moving out west in search of land.South: LOW Low prices would make it easier to spread slavery and expand the cotton industry. Replace land worn out from farming.West: LOWLow prices would encourage people to come and settle the west.
2 Sectionalism Issue: Should Workers be Free Men or Slaves? North: FREE Workers should be free men and have the ability to select the occupation they are best suited for. Slave labor would be a threat to the working manSouth: SLAVE Slave labor is necessary to do the hard work of producing cotton, The south’s “White Gold”. Owners argued that without slavery they would be unable to hire enough workers to harvest cottonWest: FREEWorkers in the west do not want slave labor in their section. Slave labor would steal jobs away from free whites.
3 Sectionalism Issue: Should the U. S Sectionalism Issue: Should the U.S. have a High or Low protective tariff?North: HIGH Tariffs would protect northern businesses by increasing the prices of foreign imports.This results in more people purchasing American-made goods.South: LOWHigh U.S. tariffs would cause other nations to have higher taxes on Southern farm goods which would cut into their profits.Low tariffs would keep farming costs down.West: HIGHMoney raised by the tariffs could be used to build roads and bridges which would allow farmers in the west to transport their raw materials to Northeastern factories. This would enable them to make more money.
4 Sectionalism Issue: Should the U. S Sectionalism Issue: Should the U.S. make Internal Improvements (Bridges + Roads)? Yes or NONorth: YESBetter roads would allow them to sell their goods out in the west and receive raw materials from the West.South: NOMoney spent would empty the treasury and would cause the government to raise taxes, resulting in more costs for Southern plantation owners.West: YESBetter roads would allow western farmers to sell their goods to the northeast and increase access to manufactured goods from the Northeast.
5 Sectionalism Issue: Should the U. S Sectionalism Issue: Should the U.S. increase the supply of money, ultimately causing inflation.?North: NONortherners were often money lenders. Increasing the supply of money would lessen the value of each dollar that will be repaid on loans.South: YESFarmers were often in debt. Greater supply of money would enable them to inflate prices and pay off debts faster.West: YESMore money in circulation would make it easier for Westerners to pay off their debts.
6 Sectionalism: Loyalty to one’s sectional interests 1. Who is the man in the cartoon?2. What are the different regions shown in the cartoon?3. What are the economic ways of life of each of these regions?4. What is happening to the man in the cartoon?
7 The Bottom LineAs you can see the North and South differed on these five important issues.This led to a power struggle between these two sections of the nation.The section that controlled the federal government would be able to set economic policy that would affect the very livelihood of the other.Political power became crucial to their economic interests.
8 Balance of Free and Slave States (1819) The Missouri Question - Northerners were against adding Missouri to the union as a slave state because it would disrupt the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states.Illinois (1818)Alabama (1819)Indiana (1816)Mississippi (1817)Ohio (1803)Louisiana (1812)Vermont (1791)Tennessee (1796)Rhode IslandKentucky (1792)New YorkVirginiaNew HampshireNorth CarolinaMassachusettsSouth CarolinaConnecticutMarylandNew JerseyGeorgiaPennsylvaniaDelawareBalance of Free and Slave States (1819)Original 13 StatesFree StatesSlave States
9 Balance of Free and Slave States (1821) Missouri Compromise• Missouri was admitted to the union as a slave state, and Maine was admitted as a free state.Maine (1820)Missouri (1821)Illinois (1818)Alabama (1819)Indiana (1816)Mississippi (1817)Ohio (1803)Louisiana (1812)Vermont (1791)Tennessee (1796)Rhode IslandKentucky (1792)New YorkVirginiaNew HampshireNorth CarolinaMassachusettsSouth CarolinaConnecticutMarylandNew JerseyGeorgiaPennsylvaniaDelawareOriginal 13 StatesFree StatesSlave States
10 • An imaginary line was drawn across the southern border of Missouri at the latitude 36 30'N. 36 , 30’
11 • Slavery was banned north of 36 , 30'N, except for Missouri. • Slavery was allowed in the part of the Louisiana Purchase south of the 36 , 30'N.• Slavery was banned north of 36 , 30'N, except for Missouri.Sectionalism – loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country.
12 Slave States Free States Original 13 States California (1850) Wisconsin (1848)Texas (1845)Iowa (1846)Florida (1845)Michigan (1837)Arkansas (1836)Maine (1820)Missouri (1821)Slave StatesFree StatesIllinois (1818)Alabama (1819)Indiana (1816)Mississippi (1817)Ohio (1803)Louisiana (1812)Vermont (1791)Tennessee (1796)Rhode IslandKentucky (1792)New YorkVirginiaNew HampshireNorth CarolinaMassachusettsSouth CarolinaConnecticutMarylandNew JerseyGeorgiaPennsylvaniaDelawareOriginal 13 States
13 IV. The Fugitive Slave Law was passed. Compromise of 1850I. California became a free state.II. The rest of the Mexican Cession was divided into two parts; Utah (UT) and New Mexico (NM).* people in UT and NM used popular sovereignty (a vote of the people) to decide on the slavery issueIII. The slave trade ended in Washington, D.C.IV. The Fugitive Slave Law was passed.
16 The Fugitive Slave Law• All Americans, by law, were required to help catch runaway slaves.• You could be fined and/or imprisoned for helping a runaway slave.• This law infuriated northerners!Cazenovia, MA, Fugitive Slave Law Convention held on 21 and 22 August 1850; Frederick Douglass is seated at the right side of the table.
18 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade!
19 Impact of Uncle Tom’s Cabin The book portrays slavery from a slave’s perspective.Broke down the stereotype that slaves were a sub-human, animal-like race.Showed slaves as caring people with the same feelings and emotions as whites.Convinced many in the North that slavery was evil and must be abolished.Southerners call the book a “pack of lies” and become more determined to defend slavery.
20 Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War Abraham Lincoln
22 Kansas-Nebraska ActII. The people of each territory voted on whether or not to allow slavery. (popular sovereignty)
23 The Kansas-Nebraska Act violated the Missouri Compromise * The Kansas-Nebraska Act violated the Missouri Compromise. Both territories were north of 36 , 30’ N and should NOT have been allowed to have slaves.
24 Birth of the Republican Party, 1854 In response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Republican party was formed.Party platform:Free LaborFree SoilFree MenOpposed the expansion of slavery into the territories of the west.
26 * In 1856, an abolitionist named John Brown murdered five proslavery men. * Over 200 people died in the fighting that followed.The abolitionist John Brown lived in Osawatomie, Kansas Territory. Brown and his sons were responsible for the brutal murder of several proslavery men near Pottawatomie, Kansas. The men were called out of their homes at night and hacked to death with swords. This was just one of many incidents that earned Kansas Territory the name of "Bleeding Kansas.”
27 “Bleeding Kansas”Before the vote on slavery:• Northerners crossed the border to keep KS a free state.• Southerners crossed the border to make KS a slave state.• Both sides claimed victory on the vote!Kansas became a free state in 1861
28 “The Crime Against Kansas” Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA)Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC)
29 On May 19, 1856, Senator Charles Sumner, a Massachusetts antislavery Republican, was attacked by Congressmen Preston Brooks. Sumner was speaking out against Pro-Slavery senators and Brooks took exception.
31 Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: • Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri. (MO)Dred Scott
32 Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: • Scott and his owner moved to Wisconsin for four years.Dred Scott
33 Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: • Scott’s owner died after returning to Missouri.Dred Scott
34 Dred Scott Decision - FACTS: * Scott sued for his freedom. He claimed that he should be a free man since he lived in a free territory (WI) for four years.Dred Scott
35 SUPREME COURT DECISIONS: Q: Was Scott a U.S. citizen with the right to sue?A: NOQ: Did living in a free territory make Scott a free man?A: NOQ: Did Congress have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory?A: NO
36 RESULTS:• Dred Scott was not given his freedom.• The Missouri Compromise was found to be unconstitutional.Southerners viewed the decision as a victory and refused to accept any limitations on slavery in the territoriesOpen to slavery through popular sovereignty (KS-NE Act)Open to slavery through popular sovereignty (Compromise of 1850)Missouri Compromise line is declared unconstitutional (Dred Scott Decision)
37 The Lincoln-Douglas (Illinois Senate) Debates, 1858 A House divided against itself, cannot stand.
38 Lincoln – Douglas Debates In 1858, Abraham Lincoln challenged incumbent Stephen Douglas for his seat in the Senate.(Incumbent – the holder of an office or position)Abraham Lincoln (left) and Stephen Douglas (right)
39 Lincoln – Douglas Debates Stephen Douglas:• Lincoln was wrong for wanting to limit the expansion of slavery.• If Lincoln tried to end slavery, the U.S. could face a civil war.• Douglas believed that each territory should be able to decide on its’ own whether or not to allow slavery by using popular sovereignty.
40 Lincoln – Douglas Debates Abraham Lincoln:• Lincoln believed that slavery was evil and should be kept out of the territories.• Lincoln believed that African Americans were guaranteed “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”, as stated in the Declaration of Independence.
41 Lincoln – Douglas Debates Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Video (2:13) Results:• Douglas won the election by a slim margin.• However, Lincoln became well known throughout the nation.Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Video (2:13)
48 "Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I say, let it be done." --John Brown, statement at his sentencing on Nov. 2, 1859
49 Last Moments of John Brown (painting by Thomas Hovenden)
54 Republican Party Platform in 1860 Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers. Free Homesteads for Farmers.Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”].Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest].Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense.
56 Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat) (Constitutional Union) Election of 1860:Main CandidatesAbraham Lincoln(Republican)John Breckinridge(Southern Democrat)Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat)John Bell(Constitutional Union)* Lincoln won the election.
59 Original Confederate flag Eventual Confederate flag Secession:• In response to Lincoln’s victory, the southern states seceded from the Union in 1861, forming the Confederate States of America.Original Confederate flagEventual Confederate flag
60 * The Civil War had now begun! Fort Sumter• Fort Sumter, South Carolina, was important because it guarded Charleston harbor• Therefore, the Confederates attacked, defeating the Union soldiers.* The Civil War had now begun!
61 Bombardment of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor April 12 and 13, 1861
62 Fort Sumter, S.C., April 4, 1861, under the Confederate flag.