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Immigration and Urbanization
Essential Question: What were the problems caused by rapid urbanization and how did the other half live? Copy Copy All White Text on Page
The New Colossus By Emma Lazarus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
1,593,000181,18802,753,00926,0001,110,0001,847,0001,069,0005,780,000540,0002,928,000 Chart: Rise of Immigrants
Immigrants from Europe Old New New New
RELIGION BIRTHPLACE REASONS DESTINATION OCCUPATION RELIGION BIRTHPLACE REASONS DESTINATION OCCUPATION ProtestantCatholic and Jewish North/Western Southern/Eastern EuropeEurope Both escaping poverty, religious and political persecution Moved to farmsMoved to cities in the in the MidwestNorth esp. east coast Became farmersUnskilled workers ProtestantCatholic and Jewish North/Western Southern/Eastern EuropeEurope Both escaping poverty, religious and political persecution Moved to farmsMoved to cities in the in the MidwestNorth esp. east coast Became farmersUnskilled workers Old vs New Immigrants Copy
Nativism Anti-Immigrant Anti-Catholic & Jew
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1883
Ellis Island Ellis Island was built in 1892 as the 1 st “Immigration Center” Angel Island built 1910 in San Francisco for Asian immigration
1900 76 million population 60% lived in rural areas1900 76 million population 60% lived in rural areas 1870 40 million population 75% lived in rural areas1870 40 million population 75% lived in rural areas
In 1860 no American city could boast a million inhabitants. 1890, New York, Chicago and Philadelphia had spurted past the million mark. In 1860 no American city could boast a million inhabitants. 1890, New York, Chicago and Philadelphia had spurted past the million mark. Cities
Immigrants Settle in Cities urbanization Industrialization leads to urbanization, or growth of cities Most immigrants settle in cities; get cheap housing, factory jobs Americanization Americanization—assimilate people into main culture Schools, voluntary groups teach citizenship skills English, American history, cooking, etiquette Ethnic communities provide social support
Mulberry Street – “Little Italy”
Irish NY: St. Patrick’s Cathedral Irish NY: St. Patrick’s Cathedral
Hester Street – Jewish Section
Pell St. - Chinatown, NYC
Characteristics of Urbanization During Gilded Age 1.Megalopolis. 2.Mass Transit. 3.Magnet for economic & social opportunities. 4.Pronounced class distinctions. - Inner & outer core 5.Squalid living conditions for many. 6.Political machines. 7.Ethnic neighborhoods. Copy
Urban Growth: 1870 - 1900
Louis Sullivan The Chicago School of Architecture Built 1 st skyscrapers 1856 – 1924 Form follows function! Copy
Louis Sullivan: Bayard Bldg., NYC, 1897
John A. Roebling: The Brooklyn Bridge, 1883 Copy
Urban Problems: There became serious shortages in housing. New types of housing were created 1)Row house – apartment type homes 2)Tenement – Multifamily urban houses often overcrowded & unsanitary Sanitation was a problem High Crime Rates Copy
“Dumbbell Tenement “
Tenement Slum Living
Struggling Immigrant Families
Urban Problems: Sanitation Cities had hard time supplying safe drinking water. People threw garbage out their windows. Horse manure piled up on the streets Sewage flowed in streets. By 1900, many cities built sewers & created sanitation departments. Copy
Fire Problems: The city had limited supply of water. Most city apartments were made of wood People also used candles and kerosene lamps for lighting. Paid fire departments were first created in 1853 (Cincinnati) The automatic fire sprinkler was also created in 1874. Copy
The Great Chicago Fire: 1871 Fire burned for 24hrs. An estimated 300 people died 100,000 were left homeless More than 3 square miles of the city center was destroyed. Property loss was estimated at $200 million. 17,500 buildings were destroyed. Copy
Chicago became the main railroad junction in the U.S. Immigrants move to Chicago because of the job opportunities Meatpacking Steel mills Cattle industry Multi-cultural community Chicago became the main railroad junction in the U.S. Immigrants move to Chicago because of the job opportunities Meatpacking Steel mills Cattle industry Multi-cultural community
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