Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1
**Reading and Writing Mathematical Proofs**

Spring Lecture 3: Proving Correctness of Algorithms

2
**Previously on Reading and Writing Mathematical Proofs**

Basic Proving Techniques

3
**Overview Basic Proving Techniques**

Forward-backward method (or direct method) Case analysis Proof by contradiction Mathematical induction

4
**Example Theorem For any integer x, x(x+1) is even Proof**

We consider two cases: Case (1): x is odd Then there exists an integer k such that x = 2k+1. Hence, x(x+1) = (2k+1) (2k + 2) = 2 (2k + 1) (k + 1). Thus, x(x+1) is even. Case(2): x is even Then there exists an integer k such that x = 2k. Hence, x(x+1) = 2k (2k + 1) = 2 (2k2 + k). Since an integer is either odd or even, this concludes the proof. □ Often omitted

5
Example Theorem √2 is irrational Proof For the sake of contradiction, let a and b be the smallest positive integers such that √2 = a/b. Square both sides and rewrite to obtain 2b2 = a2. This means that a2 is even and thus a is even (we have proved the contraposition in the previous lecture). Hence there exists a k such that a = 2k. But then 2b2 = a2 = 4k2 or b2 = 2k2, and thus there exists an integer m such that b = 2m. We get that k/m = a/b = √2. But k and m are smaller than a and b, which contradicts the assumption that a and b are smallest. Thus, √2 is irrational. □

6
**Example Theorem For all positive integers n, Σ1≤k≤n k = n(n+1)/2 Proof**

We use induction on n. Base case (n = 1): Σ1≤k≤n k = Σ1≤k≤1 k = 1 = 1(1+1)/2 = n(n+1)/2 Step (n ≥ 1): Suppose that Σ1≤k≤n k = n(n+1)/2. (Induction hypothesis or IH) We need to show that Σ1≤k≤n+1 k = (n+1)(n+2)/2. We have: Σ1≤k≤n+1 k = (Σ1≤k≤n k) + (n+1) = n(n+1)/2 + (n+1) = (n+1)(n+2)/2 Note that we use the IH in the second equality. So it follows by induction that Σ1≤k≤n k = n(n+1)/2 for all positive integers n. □

7
**Proving Correctness of Algorithms**

Today… Proving Correctness of Algorithms

8
**Correctness Algorithm**

When is an algorithm correct? Maximum(A, n) // Algorithm that computes sum of integers in A[1..n] r = 0 for i = 1 to n do r = r + A[i] return r Precondition: Conditions on the input that must hold at the start For example: n ≥ 0, A contains n integers Postcondition: Conditions on (returned) vars that must hold at the end For example: r = sum of A[i] for 1 ≤ i ≤ n Proving Algorithm: Prove logical relation between pre- and postcondition precondition postcondition

9
**Correctness Algorithm**

When is an algorithm correct? Maximum(A, n) // Algorithm that computes sum of integers in A[1..n] r = 0 for i = 1 to n do r = r + A[i] return r How can we formally argue about what the algorithm does? Must define semantics of every possible program statement Need new inference rules and axioms precondition postcondition

10
**Hoare Logic Hoare Logic**

Formal system for logical reasoning about computer programs Hoare triple {P} C {Q} Hoare logic contains rules to determine if Hoare triple is correct If P holds, then after running C, Q holds Pre- and postcondition are statements about variables precondition command(s) postcondition

11
**Hoare Triples Maximum(A, n)**

// Algorithm that computes sum of integers in A[1..n] {A contains n integers} r = 0 {r = 0} for i = 1 to n do {r = sum of elements in A[1..i-1]} r = r + A[i] {r = sum of elements in A[1..i]} {r = sum of elements in A[1..n]} return r Goal is to prove Hoare triple {P} C {Q} where C is whole program We have inference rules for single commands Must “break down” Hoare triple into components loop invariant

12
**Disclaimer Important note**

Hoare logic offers a formal way to reason about algorithms We do not want to see Hoare logic in Data Structures! Much like logical derivations Hoare logic defines the underlying rules of proving algorithms Should be in the back of your mind Write down algorithm proofs as shown in lecture/tutorials Today’s lecture is about the (hidden) rules of algorithm proofs Why do invariants actually prove correctness of loops?

13
**Assignment Axiom Assignment Axiom {P[E/x]} x = E {P}**

P[E/x] replaces every free occurrence of x in P by E In “for all x, …” or “there exists an x …” , x is not free Axiom may seem backward, but works as expected Examples {True} x = 5 {x = 5} x = 5[5/x] → 5 = 5 → True {x = 2} x = x+1 {x = 3} x = 3[x+1/x] → x + 1 = 3 → x = 2 {y = 3} x = 2y {x = 6} x = 6[2y/x] → 2y = 6 → y = 3

14
**Practice {x = 1} x = x + 5 {x = 6} {x ≥ 0} x = x – 3 {x ≥ 0}**

{x = 4} y = x + 2 {x = 4} {x = 2 and y = 4} x = x + y {x = 6 and y = 4} {x = 5} x = x + 2 {x ≥ 0} But not by axiom!

15
**Consequence Rule Consequence Rule P1 ⇒ P2 , {P2} C {Q2} , Q2 ⇒ Q1**

Read as: To prove {P1} C {Q1}, we must prove: P1 ⇒ P2 and {P2} C {Q2} and Q2 ⇒ Q1 Example: {x = 5} x = x + 2 {x ≥ 0} {x = 5} x = x + 2 {x = 7} by axiom x = 5 ⇒ x = 5 x = 7 ⇒ x ≥ 0 So {x = 5} x = x + 2 {x ≥ 0} is correct Or: {x + 2 ≥ 0} x = x + 2 {x ≥ 0} x = 5 ⇒ x + 2 ≥ 0 x ≥ 0 ⇒ x ≥ 0

16
**Practice {False} x = 5 {x = 6} {False} x = 5 {x = 5}**

{x ≥ 0} x = x – 2 {x – 2 ≥ 0} {x = 2} x = x + y {True} {x is even} x = x + 4 {x is even} Single commands are easy…

17
**Composition Rule Composition Rule {P} C1 {Q} , {Q} C2 {R}**

{P} C1 ; C2 {R} Note that Q must be chosen May require some creativity… Example: {x = 7} y = x + 1; z = 2y + x {z = 23} Choose Q: (x = 7 and y = 8) {x = 7} y = x + 1 {x = 7 and y = 8} {x = 7 and y = 8} z = 2y + x {z = 23} Why not Q: y = 8?

18
**Practice Exercise {x = A and y = B} h = x x = x + y y = x – y**

h = h + x + y x = x – y h = (h + 2x)/3 {x = B and y = A and h = A + B} Prove it!

19
**Practice Exercise {x = A and y = B} h = x x = x + y y = x – y**

h = h + x + y x = x – y h = (h + 2x)/3 {x = B and y = A and h = A + B} Prove it! {x = A and y = B and h = A} {x = A + B and y = B and h = A} {x = A + B and y = A and h = A} {x = A + B and y = A and h = 3A + B} {x = B and y = A and h = 3A + B}

20
**Composing Assignments**

Proofs in Data Structures Sequences of assignments are easy to prove Simply change values while executing assignments Normally much easier than example on previous slide In Data Structures we don’t prove much for assignments {P} C1 ;…; Cn {Q} where Ci are assignments is argued directly {P} and {Q} are mentioned and used in the remainder of the proof But the Hoare triple is assumed like an axiom h = x x = y y = h We simply say that x and y are swapped

21
**Conditional Rule Conditional Rule {B ⋀ P} C1 {Q} , {¬B ⋀ P} C2 {Q}**

{P} if B then C1 else C2 {Q} Also works with multiple cases If there is no “else”, then we must prove: ¬B ⋀ P ⇒ Q Example {x ≥ 0} if x > y then z = 2x else z = 2y {z ≥ x + y} Need to prove: {x > y and x ≥ 0} z = 2x {z ≥ x + y} {x ≤ y and x ≥ 0} z = 2y {z ≥ x + y} Case analysis?

22
**Proving conditionals How to write down a proof for an if-statement?**

{x ≥ 0} if x > y then z = 2x else z = 2y {z ≥ x + y} Theorem If initially x ≥ 0, then after executing the above algorithm z ≥ x + y Proof We consider two cases: Case (1): x > y Then z = 2x = x + x > x + y. So z ≥ x + y holds. Case(2): x ≤ y Then z = 2y = y + y ≥ x + y. So z ≥ x + y holds. Case analysis!

23
**Practice Theorem Prove the correctness of the following algorithm**

{1 ≤ x,y ≤ 9} if (x ≤ y and x ≤ 5) then z = (y – x)/2 else if x ≤ y then z = y – x else z = (x – y)/2 {0 ≤ z ≤ 4}

24
**Practice Proof We consider three cases: Case (1): x ≤ y and x ≤ 5**

Then z = (y – x)/2. Since x ≤ y, we get that (y – x)/2 ≥ 0. Furthermore, since 1 ≤ x,y ≤ 9, we also get that (y – x)/2 ≤ 4. Thus 0 ≤ z ≤ 4 as claimed. Case (2): x ≤ y and x > 5 Then z = y – x. Since x ≤ y, we get that y – x ≥ 0. Furthermore, since x > 5 and y ≤ 9, we also get that y – x ≤ 3. Thus 0 ≤ z ≤ 4 as claimed. Case (3): y ≤ x Then z = (x – y)/2. Similar to case (1) we get that (x – y)/2 ≥ 0 and (x – y)/2 ≤ 4. Thus 0 ≤ z ≤ 4 as claimed. Can we assume without loss of generality that x ≤ y?

25
**While Rule While Rule P ⇒ S , {S ⋀ B} C {S} , S ⋀ ¬B ⇒ Q**

{P} while B do C {Q} We already know how to prove loops S is the invariant P ⇒ S is the initialization {S ⋀ B} C {S} is the maintenance S ⋀ ¬B ⇒ Q is the termination It is hard to come up with a good invariant Therefore you must always prove it in Data Structures!

26
**Example Often part of input specification BinarySearch(A, n, k)**

{A contains n ≥ 2 integers in increasing order with A[1] ≤ k < A[n]} x = 1 y = n while x + 1 ≠ y do h = (x + y)/2 if A[h] ≤ k then x = h else y = h {If A contains k, then A[x] = k} What is the invariant? {x = 1 and y = n and A contains…} {Invariant}

27
**Example Often part of input specification BinarySearch(A, n, k)**

{A contains n ≥ 2 integers in increasing order with A[1] ≤ k < A[n]} x = 1 y = n while x + 1 ≠ y do h = (x + y)/2 if A[h] ≤ k then x = h else y = h {If A contains k, then A[x] = k} What is the invariant? A[x] ≤ k and A[y] > k {x = 1 and y = n and A contains…} {Invariant}

28
**Example Invariant: A[x] ≤ k and A[y] > k Initialization P ⇒ S**

S is the invariant P = A contains n ≥ 2 integers in increasing order with A[1] ≤ k < A[n] and x = 1 and y = n No arguing about what the code does Proof Before the loop x = 1 and y = n. By the input specification we get that A[x] = A[1] ≤ k and A[y] = A[n] > k.

29
**Example Invariant: A[x] ≤ k and A[y] > k Maintenance {S ⋀ B} C {S}**

B: x + 1 ≠ y Proof Before each iteration it holds that A[x] ≤ k, A[y] > k, and x + 1 ≠ y. We need to show that after the iteration A[x] ≤ k and A[y] > k. Let h = (x + y)/2. There are two cases: Case (1): A[h] ≤ k Then x = h and y is unchanged after the iteration. So, A[x] = A[h] ≤ k, and A[y] > k by invariant. Case (2): A[h] > k Then y = h and x is unchanged after the iteration. So, A[y] = A[h] > k, and A[x] ≤ k by invariant.

30
**Example Invariant: A[x] ≤ k and A[y] > k Termination S ⋀ ¬B ⇒ Q**

¬B: x + 1 = y Q = If A contains k, then A[x] = k Again no arguing about what the code does Proof After the loop A[x] ≤ k, A[y] > k, and x + 1 = y. Hence, A[x] ≤ k < A[x+1]. If A[x] < k, then A[x] < k < A[x+1]. Since A is sorted, A cannot contain k. Thus, if A contains k, then A[x] = k. “A is sorted” not in invariant → we could add it… … but too cumbersome → “sloppiness” is allowed here

31
**P ⋀ i=1 ⇒ S , {S ⋀ i ≤ n} C {S[i+1/i]} , S ⋀ i > n ⇒ Q**

For Loops How about a for loop? Simply convert to while loop: for i = 1 to n do C i = 1 while i ≤ n do C i = i + 1 P ⋀ i=1 ⇒ S , {S ⋀ i ≤ n} C {S[i+1/i]} , S ⋀ i > n ⇒ Q {P} for i = 1 to n do C {Q} not very useful

32
**P ⋀ i=1 ⇒ S , {S ⋀ i ≤ n} C {S[i+1/i]} , S ⋀ i=n+1 ⇒ Q**

For Loops How about a for loop? Simply convert to while loop: for i = 1 to n do C i = 1 while i ≤ n do C i = i + 1 P ⋀ i=1 ⇒ S , {S ⋀ i ≤ n} C {S[i+1/i]} , S ⋀ i=n+1 ⇒ Q {P} for i = 1 to n do C {Q}

33
**Termination Termination woes**

Guards like i ≤ n do not give much information (i > n) for termination Formally, we could add i ≤ n + 1 to invariant… … but that’s cumbersome Instead we simply argue termination value(s) If obvious, no argument is needed for i = n downto 1 do stuff while x2 < n do x = x + 1 while x ≤ n do x = x + 2 i = 0 x = ⌈√n⌉ x = n+1 or x = n+2 Termination values?

34
**Invariant vs. Induction**

Similarities Invariant is like Induction Hypothesis Initialization is like base case Maintenance is like induction step Proofs are very similar! Differences Maintenance must argue about code Termination: loops terminate, induction does not

35
**Example MaxSegSum(A, n) r = -∞ s = -∞ for h = 1 to n do if s > 0**

then s = s + A[h] else s = A[h] r = max(r, s) return r Theorem The above algorithm computes the maximum over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ n of the sum of elements in A[i…j] Invariant? How does it work? r = 4 s = 4 s = -2 s = 2 r = 7 s = 7 r = 11 s = 11 What if right side of interval is fixed?

36
**Example MaxSegSum(A, n) r = -∞ s = -∞ for h = 1 to n do if s > 0**

then s = s + A[h] else s = A[h] r = max(r, s) return r Theorem The above algorithm computes the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ n Invariant? How does it work? r = 4 s = 4 r = 4 s = -2 r = 4 s = 2 r = 7 s = 7 r = 7 s = 4 r = 11 s = 11 What if right side of interval is fixed?

37
**Example MaxSegSum(A, n) r = -∞ s = -∞ for h = 1 to n do if s > 0**

then s = s + A[h] else s = A[h] r = max(r, s) return r Invariant r contains the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h-1, and s contains the maxsum of A[i…h-1] over 1 ≤ i ≤ h-1 Invariant? How does it work? r = 4 s = 4 r = 4 s = -2 r = 4 s = 2 r = 7 s = 7 r = 7 s = 4 r = 11 s = 11 What if right side of interval is fixed?

38
Example Invariant r contains the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h-1, and s contains the maxsum of A[i…h-1] over 1 ≤ i ≤ h-1 Initialization Before the loop, h = 1. Hence, both 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h-1 and 1 ≤ i ≤ h-1 are empty domains. The maximum over an empty domain is -∞, so the invariant is correctly initialized.

39
Example Invariant r contains the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h-1, and s contains the maxsum of A[i…h-1] over 1 ≤ i ≤ h-1 Maintenance Before each iteration the invariant holds. We need to show that after the iteration r contains the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h, and s contains the maxsum of A[i…h] over 1 ≤ i ≤ h. We consider two cases: Case (1): s > 0 Let the maxsum of A[i…h] be obtained for i = i*. Note that i* ≠ h, since the maxsum of A[i…h-1], which is stored in s by invariant and is positive, can be added to A[h…h] to get a larger sum. So, i* < h and the maxsum of A[i…h] is A[h] plus the maxsum of A[i…h-1]. By invariant, s contains the maxsum of A[i…h-1], so A[h] should indeed be added to s.

40
Example Invariant r contains the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h-1, and s contains the maxsum of A[i…h-1] over 1 ≤ i ≤ h-1 Maintenance (continued) Case (2): s ≤ 0 Again, let the maxsum of A[i…h] be obtained for i = i*. If i* < h, then the sum of A[i*…h-1] is at most s by invariant, and thus at most zero. As a result, A[i*…h] is at most A[h], which can be achieved by i* = h. Thus s should indeed be set to A[h]. After the if-statement, s contains the maxsum of A[i…h] over 1 ≤ i ≤ h. Let the maxsum of A[i…j] be obtained for j = j*. If j* = h, then s must contain the maxsum of A[i…j]. Otherwise j* < h, and r must already contain the maxsum of A[i…j] by invariant. Thus, the maximum of r and s will be the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h.

41
Example Invariant r contains the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h-1, and s contains the maxsum of A[i…h-1] over 1 ≤ i ≤ h-1 Termination After the loop, h = n+1. By invariant, r contains the maxsum of A[i…j] over 1 ≤ i ≤ j ≤ h-1 = n. Thus, r contains the correct value.

42
**Nested Loops How to prove nested loops? {P1} for i = 1 to n**

do {I1} ….. {P2} for j = i+1 to n do {I2} …. {Q2} {Q1} Simply follow the rules Outer invariant should establish P2 Or should initialize I2 Termination of inner loop can be used to prove maintenance outer loop Only P1 and Q1 are given The rest must be chosen

43
**Summary Hoare logic Formal system for proving algorithms**

Basically defines the “rules of the game” Proofs in Data Structures No Hoare logic! (only in the background) Assignments: generally without proof If-statements: prove using case distinction Loops: prove using loop invariant Always make the distinction between “what the code does” and “what it is supposed to do”! The goal is to prove that these two things are the same

Similar presentations

© 2021 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google