Presentation on theme: "Argument & Reasoning. According to Aristotle, ________, or the “art of persuasion” is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means."— Presentation transcript:
According to Aristotle, ________, or the “art of persuasion” is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.” He described three main forms of rhetoric (persuasion): rhetoric
Three Forms of Persuasion _______: Appeal to ________. When the speaker is seen as trustworthy, knowledgeable, and ___________ in the audience, the audience will likely accept what the speaker says as true. ETHOScharacter interested
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Three Forms of Persuasion _______: Appeal to _______. P athetic or emotional appeals, persuades audiences by _________ the emotions. PATHOSemotion arousing
Three Forms of Persuasion _______: Appeal to ______. Logos refers to different systems of reasoning, working together to persuade an audience. LOGOSreason
Three Types of Reasoning 1. _________ Reasoning: From general to specific. These types of arguments are called __________ and are proven by analyzing the claims: A. All men or mortal B. Socrates is a man C. Therefore, Socrates is mortal Deductive General Spec True Syllogisms
Deductive Reasoning Not all syllogisms give true conclusions. A. All cats are mortal B. Socrates is mortal C. Therefore, Socrates is ____ When we use deductive reasoning in normal conversation, we usually use an __________. Enthymemes allow the audience to supply the “_____________” evidence to support the claim. True False enthymeme common-sense a cat
Deductive Reasoning Enthymemes simplify the syllogism to two steps: Ex. Connie is a cheerleader, therefore Connie is very popular. A. Connie is a cheerleader B. ____________________ C. Connie is very popular True ? ? Cheerleaders are popular
Deductive Reasoning Questions to ask about Deductive Arguments: Is the General Statement True? Is the Specific Example True? Does the Specific Example apply to the General Statement? Are Cheerleaders popular? Is Connie popular? Is it because she is a cheerleader, or for other reasons? Is Connie a Cheerleader?
Three Types of Reasoning 2._________: Reasoning from specific to general. We use inductive reasoning all the time, however, it does not provide ________, but only _________. Inductive Spec General certainty probability
Inductive Reasoning Ex. Evidence: Conclusion: Questions: I met 5 people from Conroe, they were all mean. People from Conroe are mean. Are there enough examples? (you only met 5 people) Are the examples typical? (anything unusual?) Are there important exceptions, or special cases? (at doctor’s office / dentist?)
Inductive Reasoning Ex. Evidence: Conclusion: Questions: The sun has risen every day for the past year. The sun will rise tomorrow. Are there enough examples? (365+) Are the examples typical? (Yes, usual occurrence) Are there important exceptions? (none foreseeable)
Three Types of Reasoning 3. _____________: All effects have a specific cause. CAUSE - - -> - - -> - - -> EFFECT Ex1. Evidence: Conclusion: Questions: Cause & Effect Jane studied for hours. She will get an “A” on the test Is the Cause connected to the Effect? Will studying for hours ensure an “A”?
Cause & Effect Ex2. Evidence: Conclusion: Questions: As the sale of ice cream increases, the murder rate goes up. Eating ice cream causes murder. Is the Cause connected to the Effect? Could there be another explanation? i.e. More ice cream is sold in the summer when it is hot, heat causes tempers to flair, etc.
Types of Faulty Reasoning ________________: Vague and general statements that cannot be ________ or _________. Ex. “Pepsi is the best soda.” ____________: Pilling up information about an ____ without much ______. Ex. “Join the Army. You’ll meet new people, go different places and can even get a college education.” Glittering Generality Card Stacking disprovenproven backingidea
Types of Faulty Reasoning _______________: Everyone else is doing it, ____ should do it also. Ex. “We are all going to the party, you don’t want to be left out.” _________________: An endorsement by someone who is ___________ from the product / idea. Ex. George Foreman endorsing Meineke mufflers. Bandwagon Appeal Unrelated Testimonial you disconnected
Types of Faulty Reasoning ___________: Attacks the person rather than the idea. (___________) Ex. “Oh yeah, well I have a better class average than you do.” Name Calling Ad Homenim
Analyzing Your Audience Supportive Audience - an audience that likes the speaker and what the speaker has to say. This audience is willing to support and promote a speaker's ideas. Uncommitted Audience - an audience that is neutral (or has not made up its mind)about the speaker's topic
Analyzing Your Audience Indifferent Audience - an audience that is apathetic or disinterested in the speaker and his topic. Captive Audience - an audience that has been forced to be in attendance Opposed Audience - an audience that is hostile to the speaker or the speaker's topic