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10 Marketing 10-1 Marketing Basics

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1 10 Marketing 10-1 Marketing Basics
C H A P T E R 10 Marketing 10-1 Marketing Basics 10-2 Develop Effective Products and Services 10-3 Price and Distribute Products 10-4 Plan Promotion

2 10-1 Marketing Basics Goal 1 Define important marketing concepts.
Goal 2 Identify the steps in a marketing strategy. Goal 3 Describe the consumer decision-making process.

3 UNDERSTAND MARKETING Marketing activities Marketing businesses
As a consumer you are exposed to marketing activities all of the time. These are activities resulting from the marketing functions. Marketing businesses All businesses must complete some marketing activities even if that is not their focus.

4 KEY TERMS Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large marketing strategy Is a company’s plan that identifies how it will use marketing to achieve its goals

5 KEY TERMS target market - a specific group of consumers who have similar wants and needs. marketing mix - is the blending of four marketing elements—product, distribution, price, and promotion. marketing orientation - considers the needs of customers when developing a marketing mix. ( uses research) final consumers - persons who buy products and services mostly for their own use.

6 KEY TERMS business consumers consumer decision-making process
are persons, companies, and organizations that buy products for the operation of a business, consumer decision-making process Is the specific sequence of steps consumers follow to make a purchase buying motives Are the reasons consumers decide what products and services to purchase

7 Marketing Activity Divide the class into small groups and assign a local business to each group. Have them make a list of all activities the company needs to perform to sell its products and services to its customers. Have the groups compare the lists.

8 list of all activities the company
needs to perform to sell its products

9 Marketing Functions

10 Marketing Functions Product and service management -designing, developing, maintaining, improving, and acquiring products and services that meet consumer needs. Distribution -involves determining the best ways for customers to locate, obtain, and use the products and services of an organization. (includes shipping and storing)

11 Marketing Functions Selling - is communicating directly with potential customers to determine and satisfy their needs. Marketing-information management – is obtaining, managing, and using market information to improve business decision-making and the performance of marketing activities.

12 Marketing Functions Financial analysis - is budgeting for marketing activities, obtaining the necessary funds needed for operations, and providing financial assistance to customers. Pricing - is setting and communicating the value of products and services. Promotion - is communicating information about products and services to potential customers. Advertising and other promotional methods are used to encourage consumers to buy.

13 Marketing Function Activity
A company in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, meets fishing boats when they dock. They buy fresh fish caught that day. Have each member of your team identify a marketing activity that must be completed by the company to purchase and then resell the fish to restaurants and supermarkets. Describe the activity as it applies to this company

14 Marketing Function Activity

15 Marketing Ethics Ethical marketers –
abide by a set of standards outlined by the American Marketing Association. These standards require that marketers must do no harm and adhere to all applicable laws and regulations. Marketers must make products that work and advertising should not be intentionally deceptive or misleading. Marketers also must be honest, responsible, fair, have respect, be open, and be good corporate citizens.

16 Checkpoint  Define marketing and the seven marketing functions.
Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. The seven marketing functions include product and service management, distribution, selling, marketing information management, financial analysis, pricing, and promotion.

17 MARKETING STRATEGY A company’s plan that identifies how it will use marketing to achieve its goals is called a Market Strategy

18 MARKETING STRATEGY Marketing planning
Marketing planning is aimed at satisfying customer needs better than competitors do. Develop a successful marketing strategy FIRST - Identify a target market THEN – Create a marketing mix

19 MARKETING STRATEGY Target market – is a specific group of consumers who have similar wants and needs Marketing mix - is the blending of four marketing elements—product, distribution, price, and promotion.

See Separate Team Handout (Breakfast Cereal Project)

21 Checkpoint  What are the two steps in developing a marketing strategy? The two steps are first identifying a target market and then developing a marketing mix.

22 UNDERSTAND CUSTOMERS Consumer decision-making – Is the specific sequence of steps consumers follow to make a purchase Buying motives – Are the reasons consumers decide what products and services to purchase.

1. Recognize a need. 2. Gather information. 3. Select and evaluate alternatives. 4. Make a purchase decision. 5. Determine the effectiveness of the decision.

24 Buying Motives Emotional buying motives - Some purchases are guided by emotions. Rational buying motives - are guided by facts and logic.

25 Checkpoint  What are the steps in the consumer decision-making process? Steps in the consumer decision-making process include recognizing a need, gathering information, selecting and evaluating alternatives, making a purchase decision, and determining the effectiveness of the decision.

26 10-2 Develop Effective Products and Services
Goal 1 Justify the importance of marketing research. Goal 2 Identify the components of a product. Goal 3 Describe how services differ from products.

27 KEY TERMS Marketing Research Product Services
Is finding solutions to problems through carefully designed studies involving consumers Product is everything a business offers to satisfy a customer’s needs. They are tangible Services Are activities that are consumed at the same time they are produced.

28 SERVICES are (define all)
Intangible Inseparable Perishable Heterogeneous

29 KEY TERMS for Services Intangible - means something that has no physical form. Inseparable - Means consumed at the same time produced. The person and/or technology producing the service must be available when and where the customer needs it.

30 KEY TERMS for Services Perishable - means that the availability of a service must match the demand for that service at a specific time. They cannot be stored for later use Heterogeneous - meaning that there will be differences in the type and quality of service provided. Because people usually provide services at the time they are consumed, there is less control over quality than is possible with products.

Totally new products Totally new products that have never been seen before by customers are not often introduced. Ex – handheld mobile phone 1973 Major improvements in existing products Example “iphone” or smartphone Minor improvements in existing products Example 5 MP camera from 3 MP camera Additions to and Improvements in a product are called product features.

Steps in marketing research Define the marketing problem - none of the other steps can be completed without first defining the problem 2. Study the situation - What question(s) are you trying to answer 3. Develop a data collection procedure - Many types of research procedures can be used to solve marketing problems 4. Gather and analyze information – primary or secondary research 5. Propose a solution – formulate a solution based on the research and analysis

Surveys gather information from people using a carefully planned set of questions. Focus groups a small number of consumers take part in a group discussion as way of gathering the ideas, experiences, and opinions of consumers.

Observations collect information by recording the actions of consumers rather than asking them questions. Experiments presents two carefully controlled alternatives to subjects in order to determine which is preferred or has better results.

35 TYPES OF RESEARCH Primary research Secondary research
Is Studies carried out to gather new information specifically directed at a current problem Secondary research Analyzing existing information gathered for another purpose but used to solve a current problem

36 Marketing Research Activity
A manufacturer of athletic shoes learns that its brand is ranked in the top three by people over 25 years old, but is not in the top five for people between the ages of 15 and 24. Have students use the five steps in marketing research to plan a way to improve the ranking with younger consumers.

37 Checkpoint  List the steps in a marketing research study.
The steps in marketing research are to define the marketing problem, study the situation, develop a data collection procedure, gather and analyze information, and propose a solution.

38 PRODUCT COMPONENTS Basic Product - The simplest form of a product.
Product Features - Additions and improvements to the basic product Options - choices of features offered to customers Brand Name - provides a unique identification for a company’s products Packaging - provides protection and security for the product Guarantee or warranty - If the product breaks or does not meet customer expectations, the company will repair, replace, or provide a refund

39 Product Planning Activity handout
New product planning is a costly and time-consuming process. It is not unusual for a company to invest several million dollars and spend years to develop a new product. Many people are involved in creating the product idea, determining how it will be produced and marketed, analyzing costs, and predicting sales. When that much money is at stake, companies need a procedure that results in products customers want and that can make a profit for the company for several years. The planning process involves multiple stages. SEE IF YOU CAN PUT THEM IN ORDER

40 Product Planning Steps
 ___Strategy development  ___Idea screening  ___Full-scale production  ___Idea development  ___Production and financial planning  ___Limited production and test marketing

41 PRODUCT PLANNING Product planning procedures Idea development
Idea screening Strategy development Production and financial planning Limited production and test marketing Full-scale production

42 Parts of a Product – New Idea
Generating new product ideas is a creative process. Ideas come from the work of scientists, from the suggestions of salespeople and other employees, and from consumer surveys, and focus groups. Most ideas are for improvements to existing products.

43 Parts of a Product – Idea Screening
Companies encourage the development of a large number of new product ideas. Then they evaluate the ideas to determine which have the best chance to be successful. Ideas are screened to determine if a demand exists for the new product. Do other companies offer similar products? Can the product be produced at a reasonable cost? Is the product legal and safe?

44 Parts of a Product – Strategy Development
If a product idea appears to be workable, the next step is to develop a full marketing strategy. The target market for the product is studied carefully. There must be a strong need for the new product. Alternative marketing mixes are developed and tested with potential customers. The costs of the alternatives are compared to determine which provide the greatest value.

45 Parts of a Product – Production and Finance
Next, the company develops a production procedure and identifies the facilities, equipment, and people that will be needed to produce the product. The costs of production and marketing are determined and a financial plan is developed to be sure the product will make a profit.

46 Parts of a Product – Limited production and test marketing
If a new product idea makes its way through the planning process, a company may produce a limited quantity of the product and test it in a small part of the market. This step allows the company to make sure the product can be produced and marketed as planned before a large investment is made for full production.

47 Parts of a Product – Full Scale Production
If each of the preceding steps is completed successfully, the new product will move into full-scale production and marketing. The company will continue to gather information on production and sales to be sure financial projections are being met. Competitors will also be watched because they will likely introduce competitive products if the new product is successful.

48 WORK as a TEAM Do you believe that maintaining the quality of a product would be easier or more difficult than maintaining the quality of a service. Why?

49 Checkpoint  What are the components of a product?
Products are everything businesses offer to customers and are composed of the basic product, product features, its brand name and packaging, and sometimes a guarantee or warranty.

50 Checkpoint  In what ways are services different from products?
Products are tangible and may be nonperishable; it is generally easier to control the quality and marketability of these items. Services, however, are intangible, more difficult to market (Inseparable), perishable and Heterogeneous

51 10-3 Price and Distribute Products
Goal 1 Discuss how the selling price of a product is calculated. Goal 2 Differentiate between a direct and an indirect channel of distribution.

52 KEY TERMS Price - is the money a customer must pay for a product or service. Distribution - is the locations and methods used to make a product or service available to the target market. Channel of distribution - The route a product follows and the businesses involved in moving a product from the producer to the final consumer

53 KEY TERMS cont Channel members - The businesses that take part in a channel of distribution Retailer - are the final business organization in an indirect channel of distribution for consumer products

54 VALUE AND PRICE Buyers usually want to pay the lowest price possible.
Sellers want to charge the highest price possible.

55 PRICING FACTORS Supply and Demand - A product that has a ready supply will have a lower price than a product with a very limited supply. If demand for a product is high, prices will increase. Products with low levels of demand will have comparatively low prices.

56 PRICING FACTORS Uniqueness - When a product has few close competitors because it is unique, the price will be higher than products that are very similar to others. Age - When products are first introduced to the market, prices will be quite high. As products age, the price gradually decreases.

57 PRICING FACTORS Season - Many products are used at a particular time of the year. Winter apparel, air conditioners, and holiday decorations have high levels of sales for a short time and then almost no sales for the rest of the year. Prices will be highest just before and at the beginning of the season. Prices will be lower during other times of the year.

58 PRICING FACTORS Complexity - Highly complex and technical products have higher prices than simple products. Products with many features and options will also command higher prices.

59 PRICING FACTORS Convenience - People pay for convenience. If a product is easily available and the seller provides a high level of customer service, prices will go up. Customers expect to pay low prices if they shop at a large warehouse store that is not as conveniently located and offers little service.

60 PRICE A PRODUCT Selling price - is the price paid by the customer for the product. Selling price = Product costs + Operating expenses Profit

61 PRICE A PRODUCT Product costs - the costs to the manufacturer of producing the product or the price paid by other businesses to buy the product. Operating expenses - all expenses of operating the business that are associated with the product. They can include salaries, storage and display equipment, facilities, utilities, taxes, and many others.

62 PRICE A PRODUCT Profit - the amount of money available to the business after all costs and expenses have been paid. Gross margin - is the difference between the selling price and the product costs. It represents the amount of money on hand to pay for operating expenses and provide a profit. Gross Margin = Selling price - Product costs

63 MARKUP The amount added to the cost of a product to set the selling price Markup on cost Markup on selling price

64 MARKUP A markup is stated as a percentage of the product’s cost or as a percentage of the product’s selling price. If a product costs $15 and has a 100 percent markup on cost, the markup is $15 and the selling price is $30. That $30 product would have a markup on selling price of 50 percent.

65 MARKDOWN A reduction from the original selling price
Reasons for markdowns Low demand End of season Flaws

66 Checkpoint  What is the formula for calculating the selling price of a product? Selling price = Product cost + Operating expenses + Profit

67 Distribution involves determining the best methods and procedures to use so customers can find, obtain, and use a product or service

68 Distribution channel The route a product follows and the businesses involved in moving a product from the producer to the final consumer The channel can be either Direct or Indirect. In a direct channel of distribution, products move from the producer straight to the consumer. An indirect channel of distribution includes one or more other businesses between the producer and consumer

Differences in quantity – Businesses produce or sell large amounts of each product to many customers. Each consumer needs only a very small number of products at a given time. Differences in assortment – Businesses typically specialize in producing a specific type of product while consumers want to purchase a variety of products.

Differences in location - In today’s global economy, thousands of miles often separate producers and consumers. Businesses may need to distribute their products to customers in many countries. Differences in timing – Businesses gain efficiency by producing large amounts of a product at one time. Some agricultural products can only be produced at a specific time of the year. Consumers may want to buy products at different times than when they are produced.

Channels - The route a product follows and the businesses involved in moving a product from the producer to the final consumer Channel members - The businesses that take part in a channel of distribution

72 Name several ways a distribution center improves the exchange process between businesses and consumers.

73 How does a Distribution Center affect product Sell Price?

74 Checkpoint  What is the difference between a direct and an indirect channel of distribution? In a direct channel of distribution, products move directly from the producer to the consumer. In an indirect channel, others may participate in the movement of products from the producer to the consumer, such as transportation services and retailers.

75 10-4 Plan Promotion Goal 1 Justify the importance of communication in marketing. Goal 2 Identify and describe the common types of promotion.

76 KEY TERMS Promotion Effective Communication
is any form of communication used to inform, persuade, or remind. Sales Promotions include games, contests and give-aways Effective Communication is the exchange of information so there is common understanding by all participants.

77 Key Terms Personal Selling Advertising
is direct, individualized communication with prospective customers to assess their needs and assist them in satisfying those needs with appropriate products and services. Advertising is any paid form of communication through mass media directed at identified consumers to provide information and influence their actions.

78 Key Terms Merchandising Publicity
Includes a set of promotional activities designed to generate sales in the retail setting. Publicity Free communication through mass media

The Communication Process Communication begins with a person or organization (sender) that has information to communicate to another person or organization (receiver). The sender chooses the way (communication channel) the information will be transmitted to the receiver.

Before sending the message, the sender decides the form in which the information will be sent—text, spoken words, pictures. Preparing the information to be communicated is called encoding. The receiver obtains the information from the channel and interprets it for understanding (decoding).

To be sure that the communication achieved the desired result, the sender needs to have a response from the receiver (feedback). If the receiver understood the information and responds in a way the sender wanted, communication was effective. the receiver does not respond or acts in an unexpected way, communication failed


83 Checkpoint  How does identifying a target market improve promotion communications? Communication can be developed and directed more specifically if a target market is identified.

84 Communicating through promotion
Promotion is an important form of communication. A business needs to provide information to consumers in order to persuade them to make a purchase. As the sender, the business decides what information to provide. The consumer is the receiver. The information is encoded in the form of a promotional message such as an advertisement.

85 Communicating through promotion cont.
The business chooses an information channel. Common promotional channels include advertising media, salespeople, and the Internet. If the customer sees or hears the message, it is decoded. The response of the consumer gives feedback to the business about the effectiveness of the promotion.

86 Communicating through promotion cont.
Choosing target markets and studying their needs and decision-making process can make promotion more effective. When the focus of a business is a target market, communication can be very specific to the needs of that group using media that are familiar to and trusted by those consumers.

87 TYPES OF PROMOTION Personalized promotion Mass promotion
communicates directly with each customer using information tailored to that person. Mass promotion communicates with many people at the same time with a common message.

88 Targeted Promotion cont.
Merchandising Includes a set of promotional activities designed to generate sales in the retail setting. Mass personalization Businesses can combine the advantages of personalized and mass promotion

89 Merchandising Strategies
Visual merchandising uses visual signals to communicate in a retail setting. Visual merchandising allows a retailer to use visual signals to replace a salesperson for information. Retailers will also set up a display to exhibit a product at the point of sale.

90 Mass Personalization Mass personalization begins with promotion through mass media such as newspapers, mass mailings, or the Internet. Prospective customers see the advertisement and become interested in the product or service. The company then provides an easy-to-use method for the consumer to gather more personalized information.

91 Mass Personalization cont.
a survey or a set of links will then take customers with specific questions to other web pages. The links can help them choose a specific product and complete an online purchase. This process combines both mass promotion and personalized promotion

92 Checkpoint  Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the major types of promotion. Personalized promotion allows the provider to meet customers and identify customer needs. It is, however, the most expensive type of promotion. Mass promotion reaches a larger target market and is much less expensive. It does not, however, provide for individualized service, and sales (results) are often not immediate.

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