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Ecology Chapter 3 Photo by

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1 Ecology Chapter 3 Photo by

2 ECOLOGY - the study of interactions among organisms with each other and with environment BIOSPHERE - portion of planet where life exists

3 Biotic factors: the living factors in an organism’s environment Abiotic factors: the non living factors in an organism’s environment

4 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION Species - individuals that can breed with one another Population - all the individuals of the same species (ducks) in an area

5 A population is always composed of same-species organisms

6 Community - all the populations that live together in an area

7 What is in your backyard community?

8 Ecosystem - the community plus the physical factors in an area (rain, light, soil..) Examples: Rotting Log Koi Pond Lake Clump of Dirt A field An old maple tree

9 Biome - large area that has a particular climate, and particular species of plants and animals that live there (tundra)

10 Biosphere - the part of the earth that supports life

11 Ecological methods - how do we study it? Observing Experimenting Modeling Models are created by humans to make predictions.

12 Sometimes, you must be cautious in how a model interprets data.... Imagine graphing a person's height as they age. One could predict that by the time they were age 30, they would be 22 feet tall. However, the model would need to account for the slowing of growth after adolescence.

13 Ecosystem Interactions Niche- the role or position that an organism has in its environment Predation- the act of one organism pursuing and consuming another organism for food Symbiosis- the close relationship that exists when two or more species live together

14 Types of Symbiosis Mutualism- the relationship between two or more organisms that live closely together and benefit from each other Commensalism- a relationship in which one organism benefits, and the other is neither helped nor harmed Parasitism-a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other (harms them)

15 Commensalism

16 Mutualism

17 1. A group of animals that live in the same area and can interbreed is called a (n) _____________________ 2. The study of organisms and their interactions with the environment is known as ___________________________ 3. A large area that has a particular climate and distinct plants and animals is called a ____________________________ 4. All of the different populations living in an area (plants, rabbits, coyotes...) is called the _________________________ 5. An ecosystem includes all the living and ___________ factors in an area. 6. The portion of the planet that can sustain life is the ________ 7. Animals that can interbreed are called a(n) _______________

18 3-2 Energy Flow Autotrophs (producers) - capture energy from environment and convert it into "food" Heterotrophs (consumers) - must eat things Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores / Decomposers

19 *SUNLIGHT is the main source of energy* Photosynthesis - uses light energy to make "food"

20 Chemosynthesis - makes food from chemicals (some bacteria synthesize food in this way) Some bacteria live in deep ocean vents, and make their food from chemicals in those vents

21 FOOD CHAINS AND FOOD WEBS - illustrate the flow of energy in an ecosystem *Note the direction of the arrows, they indicate where the energy is going when one organism consumes another. Each step in a chain or web is called a TROPHIC LEVEL

22 Identify: Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers Find the Omnivore.

23 Ecological Pyramids (fig 3-9) Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers



26 3.3 Biogeochemical Cycles (biology + geology + chemical) Matter is not used up, it is transformed, the same molecules are passed around (see images in your book) Graphics Carbon Cycle Water Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Water Cycle ground water transpiration (from plants) evaporation (from bodies of water) precipitation (from clouds)

27 Water Cycle

28 Summarize in your own words how water cycles through the biosphere

29 Carbon Cycle

30 Summarize in your own words how carbon cycles through the biosphere

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