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Chapter Fifteen The British Isles and Nordic Nations

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1 Chapter Fifteen The British Isles and Nordic Nations
Section Four The Nordic Nations

2 Physical Characteristics
The following nations are part of the region known as the Nordic Nations also called Norden: Norway Sweden Finland Denmark Iceland They are all in extreme northern Europe and are unified by strong cultural bonds. Parts of some Nordic nations reach past the Arctic Circle into the polar zone.

3 A Varied Landscape The region is a collection of peninsulas, islands, seas, gulfs, and oceans. The largest land masses are the Scandinavian and Jutland peninsulas. The terrain varies: Denmark is flat, while Norway is mountainous.

4 Environmental Change Much of the Scandinavian peninsula is rocky and has little farmland. (Norway and Sweden) Denmark has rich farmland. The Scandinavian coastline is jagged with deep valleys carved into the coast. These valleys are called fjords. They are filled with ocean water and have steep walls.

5 Natural Resources In Iceland, volcanoes and glaciers exist side by side. The country is called the land of “fire and ice”. The people of Iceland use geothermal energy to heat homes, water, and produce electricity. Geothermal Energy- energy produced from the heat of the earth’s interior.

6 Long Winters, Short Summers
At midwinter the sun may shine only 2 or 3 hours per day. In midsummer, it shines for more than 20 hours. In winter the aurora borealis, or northern lights shine. The start of summer is a public holiday in many Nordic nations. People celebrate the return of the “midnight sun” and “white nights”.

7 The Ocean and the Climate
The western part of Norway, southern Sweden, Iceland, and Denmark have mild climates due to warm ocean currents. The eastern parts of Norway, northern Sweden, and Finland have cold arctic climates.

8 Shared Cultural Bonds: Understanding the Past
The Nordic people share a common ancestry with the Vikings. The Vikings were warriors, traders, colonizers, and explorers who raided Europe and left their mark on history. The Nordic nations were all united for about 150 under the monarchs of Denmark. Iceland, Denmark, and Norway were united for many more centuries. The Nordic people are mostly Lutheran since the Reformation. (A branch of the Christian faith) They all speak related languages and most learn and speak English.

9 Economic Systems The Nordic nations are all democracies.
They all have mixed economic systems. Mixed Economies- an economic system combining free enterprise and socialism. Most businesses operate as they do in the U.S., but some operate only under government control. They have free daycare systems and medical care. Most Nordic nations remain neutral in international disputes.

10 Economic Activities The Nordic nations have rich economies.
Their people enjoy a high standard of living. Denmark gets most of its wealth from farming. (60% of its economy) Fishing is also a major economic activity, mainly for Norway. The region also has high profits from oil, gas, high-grade ores, and forest land.

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