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Setting the Stage for the Reformation Political Change during the Renaissance.

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Presentation on theme: "Setting the Stage for the Reformation Political Change during the Renaissance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Setting the Stage for the Reformation Political Change during the Renaissance

2 Politics and the State  15 th Century rulers centralized power –Many sought to eliminate disorder & violence –Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain –Charles IV and Charles V of HRE –Frances I of France –Henry VII of England –All invested royal power with authority and sense of national purpose

3 Spain  Finally United through the marriage of Isabella to Ferdinand (El Catolico - “Most Catholic Nation”) –Isabella of Castile (and Spanish Americas) & Ferdinand of Aragon (Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Sicily & Naples)  No common political, judicial or administrative institutions  Aristocratic power lessened under I & F  Church used to strengthen royal authority –Reconquista ends (last Arabs driven out by 1492; majority of Jews relocated) –Inquisition established to maintain sense of “Spainishness”

4 Spain (cont’d)  Reconquista/ Inquisition (1478) –Attempt to drive Muslims (Moors) & Jews out –Conversos Marranos - Jewish converts/ Moriscos – Muslim converts Often “conversions” merely verbal –(Remember: Christianity / State STILL united in Europe until after the Reformation) To be non-Christian = to be vs. the state –Many Jews had been important members of government and trade Jews expelled: Flee to Northern Africa, Germany, Poland, Netherlands, Southwestern France Many tortured at the hand of the Spanish Inquisition –Moors driven out by 1492 with victory at Granada 1502 – Isabella expels all professed Muslims from Spain

5 Holy Roman Empire  three states: –princely states Saxony, Brandenburg, Bavaria –ecclesiastical states bishoprics, abbacies – free imperial states 50 states, not large territory BUT dominated financial & commercial life

6 Golden Bull, 1356  seven electors elect Holy Roman Emperor –Count of Palatine; Duke of Saxony; Margrave of Brandenburg; King of Bohemia –Archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier

7 Two Threats to the HRE  Ottoman Turks –Ottoman Empire is pressing in on Europe Take Constantinople in 1453 – then move north toward Hungary (Bohemia and HRE would be next!)  Hanseatic League –Trade Association made up of German and Baltic states –Members interested in breaking financial and political ties with the HRE in order to gain independence.

8 Habsburgs – European Dynasty  Maximilian I (1493-1519) –administrative “circles”, Imperial Chamber, Imperial Council and Reichstag BUT… –strategic use of royal marriages he marries Mary of Burgundy (France & Netherlands) their son, Philip, marries Joanna heiress of Castile & Spanish America, Aragon & its Mediterranean & Italian possessions their son, Charles, inherits all this PLUS is elected Holy Roman Emperor, 1519

9 Habsburg Brothers  Charles V (a.k.a. Charles I) – most powerful ruler of his time  Ferdinand (his brother) elected King of Bohemia and Hungary –attempt to protect areas from the Turks, who had been moving into Europe from Constantinople since 1453  “Universal Monarchy” –Threat to balance of power and other nation’s independence –France especially worried

10 Charles V  unable to consolidate power in the Holy Roman Empire  unable to unite all of his landholdings into one “state”  constant warfare with Francis I (France) over Italy –no national army, must hire mercenary forces  1527 sacks Rome – viewed as a blood thirsty tyrant  not enough funds to manage territories  Protestantism  Ottoman Turks  abdicates 1556, dies 1559

11 France  Francis I, 1516-1547 –Student of warfare – seduced by power Mother Louise ruled while he was away waging war –Attempts to take over all of Italy – Fails BUT Both Pope Leo X and the Sforza (Milan) recognize French “dominion” = influence in these areas (i.e. French are protectors of the Papacy) –Returns to France greatly influenced by the Renaissance da Vinci Fontainebleau

12 Palace Fontainebleau

13 Francis I  Once back in France begins to further consolidate his power throughout France  Concordat of Bologna, 1516: Pope Leo X formally agrees to let Francis appoint bishops and abbots – BUT – Francis agrees to let pope collect annuities & recognizes the pope’s superiority over church councils

14 Francis I vs. Charles V  looses Holy Roman Emperorship to Charles V  repeatedly beat in Italy by Charles V’s mercenary armies  Francis I tries to use Protestantism against Charles V  Henry II (1547-1559) reaches peace with Habsburgs – Peace of Cateau-Cambresis, 1559

15 England Disorder! Civil Conflict! Murder! The War of the Roses 1455-1485 House of York (white rose) vs. House of Lancaster (red rose)

16  Henry IV, 1399-1413 – Black Death / disorder / damages trade, agriculture, industry –Henry V, 1413-1422 – In line to become King of France BUT dies –Henry VI, mentally disturbed --- monarchy sinks –Edward IV – York, took throne in 1461 (-1483) Began to reaffirm royal authority Reduced royal reliance on Parliament for $  Richard III, Duke of Gloucester (1483-5) –Edward’s sons imprisoned & murdered –Was Richard involved?  War continues –Henry Tudor VII (1485-1509) challenges Richard III Defeats Richard III at Bosworth in 1485 –Marries Elizabeth of York (Edward IV’s daughter)

17 England, cont’d  Henry VII (Tudor) –Gained throne by force –Came to control the Parliament –Used the royal council to his advantage, Star Chamber (royal court dealing with legal issues w/o jury; court of appeals) –Won the support of many by promoting economic stability in England –Avoided expensive civil wars, passed laws against “livery and maintenance.” –Diplomacy, Diplomacy, Diplomacy

18 England (conclusion)  Henry VII (cont’d) - 1501 marries his son to Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain - 1509 – Henry VII dies England is at peace – (after 200 years) Economically stable Monarchy has regained prestige

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