2 ISE 311 Chapter 31 - Job Instruction/Training Is Training the Solution? Training is temporary. Solve health and safety problems with permanent engineering solutions instead. Training Needs Assessment Identify drivers of training need. May be external or internal. What knowledge and skills will close the gap between actual and desired performance?
3 ISE 311 Reasons for Job Training Static Job and Static Worker Use training to improve the worker’s job knowledge. Teach: Better methods New skills New techniques for performing familiar tasks Static Job and Changing Worker Pre-train employees through cross-training. Train potential employees. Several workers may have to be trained when a job is created or eliminated.
4 ISE 311 Reasons for Job Training (cont.) Changing Job and Static Worker Train worker in new technology. Have a product designer learn about ergonomics. Changing Job and Changing Worker Major changes occur in a job. Lean production requires skilled, cross-trained workers. Worker involvement in decisions requires greater education.
5 ISE 311 Designing Job Instruction Specify Instructional Objectives In a well-defined objective: The desired performance is observable. The desired performance is measurable. The conditions of performance are specified. Organize the Message Planning: Decide how to communicate (the medium). Decide on the specific tactics. Drafting: Use multiple drafts. Revising: Perform pilot tests with the target audience. Revise the material based on the results.
6 ISE 311 Kinesthetic Learning by doing Results in learning with long retention. Use for highly repetitive psychomotor movements. Remove dangers during practice. Audio Auditory messages are transitory. Complex information is difficult to communicate The message is paced by the sender at a fixed rate. Visual Text, representation of the object, or a combination Linear or branching presentation Communicate to individuals or group Ease of modification Distributed or massed practice Location of instruction Media Options
7 ISE 311 Message Options Pictorial Messages Live demonstrations Film/video Still photographs Still or animated drawings Color or black and white Consider image fidelity. Text Messages Words: Write so you cannot be misunderstood. Style: Reduce the complexity of your writing. Consider using job aids in writing (e.g. spell checker). Format: Use tabular rather than narrative formats.
8 ISE 311 Tactics Training (memorization) requires Subject knowledge by the trainer Knowledge of how to teach by the trainer Training materials Training time A trainee willing and able to learn Trainer options “Sit by Nellie”: Observe a fellow worker. Let the supervisor do the training. Hire a teacher to train the workers. Use self-instruction with good materials.
9 ISE 311 Tactics (cont.) Programmed Learning Define the exact behavior the trainee will learn to do. Present the information in small increments. Allow the trainee to determine the pace. Give immediate feedback on results to trainee. Observe trainee behavior and modify program if necessary. Enhanced Training Practice makes perfect. Part-task training focuses on the difficult parts. Training wheels permit the trainee to learn without injury or damage.
10 ISE 311 Tactics (cont.) Simulation Allows the trainee to gain a high level of skill before doing actual work. Use when the cost of error in real performance is high. Computerized simulation has become more accessible.
11 ISE 311 Evaluation Purpose Use evaluation feedback to improve the training process. Training is a continuous process. Techniques Participant satisfaction Learning outcomes Attitude changes Behavior or performance changes Accomplishment of organizational goals
12 ISE 311 Job Aid Design Considerations Information readability Information content Information organization Physical handling and environmental factors Procedural Job Aids Include assembly instructions, to-do lists, recipes. Present information in a decision structure table. Tables permit decisions to be made by experts without time stress. Expert systems are computerized, complex decision structure tables.
13 ISE 311 Job Aid Design Psychomotor Information Present in pictorial instruction or on video. Use words + pictures and allow for modifications. Have copies at the machine and in the office. Consider computerizing the material. Limit Aids (for Inspection) Have experts define what is acceptable or not. Select a range of parts. Arrange the parts in descending quality and mount or photograph. Give a set to each inspector and operator.
14 ISE 311 Challenge of Change Technological change interacts with social systems. “The bottom line of engineering is implementation.” “Where you stand depends on where you sit.” Improve the odds through … Communication Teams
15 ISE 311 Stages of the Change Process Frozen: stability ‘assembly line’ production methods Unfreeze: rethink goals, consider alternatives Introduce cellular manufacturing concepts Move: try new methods; feelings of insecurity Cross-training, development of work teams, etc. Unfamiliar skills, new expectations, etc. Refreeze: “I like it”; “it works” Teams coalesce, skills become familiar, etc. Frozen: stability
17 ISE 311 Area of Freedom The solution space is reduced to the area of freedom by economic, legal,technical, or policy factors.
18 ISE 311 Communication Resistance to change may result from: Lack of knowledge Emotions Communicate: Why the change is being proposed What the expected consequences are Communication improves the solution and acceptance.
19 ISE 311 Teams (Small Groups) Industrial democracy Quality Circles Power sharing
20 ISE 311 Team Composition People doing the job under consideration Skilled-trades (maintenance) people Staff people (process engineers, health/safety specialists, first-line supervisors)
21 ISE 311 Key Aspects of Successful Teams Management commitment Training Team composition Information sharing Activities and motivation Evaluation
22 ISE 311 Negotiation Allows people to change their concepts gradually Eliminates clearly unacceptable designs Improves communication within the group
23 ISE 311 Special Case: Quality Circles Facilitator Membership Problem of Horizontal barrier Vertical barrier Projects Line workers Staff /Supervisors Other depts. Support groups
24 ISE 311 Example Quality Circle Project Step 1: Select the project. Volume switch defects on stereos Step 2: Analyze present conditions Pareto analysis Fish diagrams
25 ISE 311 Pareto Analysis 1 Switch rotation accounted for 70% of defects.
26 ISE 311 Pareto Analysis 2 Uneven rotation accounted for 87% of rotation defects.
27 ISE 311 Fish Diagram Possible causes of switch rotation errors. Reduce uneven switch rotation G bearing loose torsion tight setting nut dimension MATERIAL 9 mm interval axis hole F cover G bearing setting F cover setting tool width G axis setting TOOLS, JIGS INSPECTION inspection tools judgment OPERATOR content education knowledge personality
28 ISE 311 Example Quality Circle project (cont.) Step 3: Establish goals. Reduce rotation defect rate Develop implementation plan Selectively attack problems