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Chapter Three Population and Culture

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1 Chapter Three Population and Culture
Section One The Study of Human Geography

2 Where People Live Over 6 billion people live on earth
Some areas have high concentrations of people Some areas are sparsely populated

3 People and Environments
People have always adapted to their environments Human activity has dramatically altered the earth’s physical landscape Examples of this are: cutting trees, grazing their animals on wild grasses, plowing soils, and damming rivers

4 Population Density Population Density- the average number of people in a square mile or in a square kilometer

5 Population Growth The earth’s population has increased dramatically in recent centuries The Effects of Growth: Predictions of famine, disease, natural resource depletion Increase in levels of technology and creativity

6 Comparing Growth Rates
Birthrate- the number of live births each year per 1,000 people Death rate- the number of deaths each year per 1,000 people Immigrants- people who move into a country Emigrants- people who leave the country to live in other places Zero Population Growth- When the combined birthrate and immigration rate equals the combined death rate and emigration rate

7 Patterns and Settlement
The densest population areas on earth are: East Asia, South Asia, Europe, eastern North America Metropolitan Areas- central cities surrounded by suburbs Urbanization- the growth of city populations Rural- countryside Most North Americans and Europeans live in metropolitan areas

8 The Nature of Culture Culture includes: Food Clothing Architecture
Arts Technology Religion Language Patterns of Behavior Government Systems Education Systems Roles of Women and Men

9 Culture Hearths Culture Hearth- a place where important ideas begin and from which they spread to surrounding cultures

10 Language Language is the cornerstone of culture
All cultures have language People who speak the same language often share the same customs Some societies have people who speak many different languages : India has over 700 languages See pgs. 92&93 in text

11 Religion Religion answers basic questions about the meaning of life
Religion supports basic values that a group of people consider important Monotheism- the worship of one God Polytheism- the worship of many gods Religion includes the use of prayers and rituals See pgs. 94&95 in text

12 Cultural Landscapes As people use natural resources, (technology), or alter the surface of the earth, they produce a unique cultural landscape

13 Social Organization Every culture is organized into smaller social units The most important unit of social organization is the family Social class ranks people in order of status based on: Money Occupation Education Ancestry Today in many cultures people can change their social class. This has not always been the case.

14 Women and Minorities In many cultures, social mobility is restricted. This restriction is often imposed on: Women Ethnic Minorities Religious Minorities See pg. 96 of text for examples

15 Cultural Convergence Cultural Convergence- when the skills, arts, ideas, habits, and institutions of one culture come in contact with those of another culture Examples: A hit music video in the U.S.A becomes a hit around the world when it is transmitted by cable and satellite. Mexican food in the United States was introduced by Mexicans bringing it to America.

16 Cultural Diffusion Cultural Diffusion- a process by which a cultural element is transmitted across some distance from one group to another. Example: Christianity being introduced to the Americas by Europeans over a period of many years Native American crops such as potatoes, corn, and beans, over time, became major sources of food in Europe

17 Cultural Divergence Cultural Divergence- the restriction of a culture from outside cultural influences Some governments seek to control transportation and communication to limit cultural contact. They limit free access to newspapers, internet links, radio and television transmissions.

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