2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE EU The European Union has gone through many incarnations since its originsfifty-plus years ago.
3 European Coal and Steel Community European Coal and Steel Community *1952: The basis of the EU began with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), to regulate European industry & improve commerce, post WWII. * The six founding states were Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and The Netherlands. *1957: the Treaties of Rome were signed by the six member states, forming: -The European Economic Community (EEC) -The European Atomic Energy Community (Euroatom) * These units worked concurrently with the ECSC.
4 The European Community 1967: ECSC, EEC, andEuroAtom merged to form the basis of the EC.1973: the United Kingdom,Denmark, and Irelandjoined the EC.1981: Greece joined.1986: Spain and Portugaljoined.1995: Finland, Sweden, andAustria joined.The European Community
5 Goals of the EC To continue to improve Europe’s economy by regulating trade and commerce.To form a single market for Europe'seconomic resources.As these goals were accomplished, othergoals were developed:Environmental movementsRegulatory actsHuman rights concerns.
6 THE EUROPEAN UNION1992: the Maastricht Treaty was ratified, which re-chartered the EC as the European Union.
7 Basis of the EUThe European Union is based on the rule of law and democracy. It is neither a new State replacing existing ones nor is it comparable to other international organizations. Its Member States delegate sovereignty to common institutions representing the interests of the Union as a whole on questions of joint interest. All decisions and procedures are derived from the basic treaties ratified by the Member States.
8 Principal Objectives of the EU Establish European CitizenshipEnsure freedom, security, and justicePromote economic and social progressAssert Europe’s role in the world
9 The EU is run by five institutions, each playing a specific role: European Parliamentelected by the peoples of the Member StatesCouncil of the Unioncomposed of the governments of the Member StatesEuropean Commissiondriving force and executive bodyCourt of Justicecompliance with the lawCourt of Auditorssound and lawful management of the EU budget
10 European Parliament Members elected every 5 years 625 members as of July 2003Three essential functions:Legislate laws along w/ CouncilBudget authority along w/ CouncilSupervision of Commission
11 Council of the EUComposed of the head of each member country (Prime Minster/President, etc) & the President of the EU Commission1 Minister acts as President, rotating twice yearly2 meetings a year, in President’s countryMain decision making body of the EUResponsibilitiesLegislation & budgetary policies along w/ ParliamentEconomic policiesInternational agreements
12 European Commission http://europa.eu.int/comm/index_en.htm Embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union.20 members: 1 President, 2 vice-Presidents & 17 CommissionersElected every 5 years by the Member States after they have been approved by the European Parliament.As the EU’s executive body, it:Drafts legislation for Parliament & Council; Implements legislationGuardian of treaties, along with Court of JusticeRepresents EU internationallyManages the 15 EU agencies
13 President of the EU President is appointed (not elected) by the EU Council for a 5-yearterm and confirmedby Parliament.Romano Prodi (Italy),Confirmed Sept. 1999; His term ends 2004Former law/political science professor with many academic publicationsCommissioners:
14 Court of Justice 15 judges and 8 advocate generals appointed by member states for 6 year terms.The Court of Justice ensures that Communitylaw is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied.It has jurisdiction in disputes involving Member States, EU institutions, businesses and individuals
15 The EU Headquarters Brussels, Belgium Selected as the headquarters of the European Union because of its centralized location in Europe.
16 CURRENT EU ISSUES 1. Enlargement: *Two countries joined the EU in 2007, making 27 countries total.2. The Euro:*The Common Currency for the EU Countries.3. Multilingualism:*22 official languages (as of 2007) for 27 countries.4. Openness, Access and Transparency:*How to get the documents to the people?5. Safety & security of Europe:*Against terrorism.
17 Problems Few people identify themselves first as European. Key EU organizations are still superficialDemocratic deficitLack of common language
18 ENLARGEMENT: 10 more countries become EU Member States in 2004 country - date of EU applicationCyprus - 3 July 1990Malta - 16 July 1990Hungary - 31 March 1994Poland - 5 April 1994Slovakia - 27 June 1995Latvia - 13 October 1995Estonia - 24 November 1995Lithuania - 8 December 1995Czech Republic - 17 January 1996Slovenia - 10 June 1996
19 1951 ECSC:France,Italy, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg1973: Denmark, Ireland, and UK1981: Greece1986: Spain and Portugal1995: Austria, Finland and Sweden2004: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia.2007 Romania and Bulgaria
20 27 Member Countries Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Cyprus DenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreeceHungaryIrelandItalyLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgMaltaThe NetherlandsPolandPortugalRomaniaSlovakiaSloveniaSpainSwedenUnited Kingdom27 Member Countries
21 Applicant Countries whose requests for EU membership are still pending country - date of EU applicationTurkey - 14 April 1987Croatia
22 What Does it Take to qualify for Membership in the EU: 1 What Does it Take to qualify for Membership in the EU: The candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities. 2. The candidate country has the existence of a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union. 3. The candidate country has the ability to take on the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.
23 NORWAY?Norway has never been a member of the EU, but is ‘partners’ with EU for certain economic reasons.Their economy has historically been very good and they had no desire to ‘merge’ with lesser economies.As of 2002, the Norwegian economy began to decline. There is a now a developing majority of Norwegian that want Norway to join the EU.
24 SWITZERLAND? Switzerland just joined the UN in 2002. Switzerland hasnever been amember of the EU,but is ‘partners’with EU for certaineconomic reasons.Switzerlandjust joined theUN in 2002.Swiss government wants Switzerland to join foreconomic reasons but the Swiss people continue tovote against joining the EU.
25 THE EUROThe euro – Europe's new single currency - represents the consolidation and culmination of European economic integration.Its introduction on January 1, , marked the final phase of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), a three-stage process that was launched in as EU member states prepared for the 1992 single market.
26 The EURO Early 1990’s1990: Aimed at boosting cross- border business activity, the first stage of EMU lifted restrictions on movements of capital across internal EU borders.1994: The European Monetary Institute was established in Frankfurt to pave the way for the European Central Bank.1999: the Euro was introduced as the single currency for eleven EU member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.
27 : The Euro and the previous national currencies were concurrently used in participating states.2002: The participating countries had their previous national currencies withdrawn permanently as legal tender.EU member states not yet using the Euro as currency: Denmark, Greece, Sweden, United KingdomThe EURO 1999-Present