3 Knights: Warriors on Horseback The Technology of Warfare ChangesCharles Martel got the idea for mounted knights from the Muslim Moors he fought in Tours.Leather saddle and stirrups enable knights to handle heavy weapons
4 Armor Plate Armor Chainmail Gambeson: a padded jacket worn alone or in combination with chainmail
5 Knights: Warriors on Horseback The Warrior’s Role in Feudal SocietyBy 1000s, western Europe is a battleground of warring noblesFeudal lords raise private armies of knightsKnights rewarded with land; provides income for needed weaponsTried to capture enemy & hold knights ransom
6 So, You Want to be a Knight? One had to be “well-born” (Son of a Noble)Did NOT Really Happen!
7 So, You Want to be a Knight? A Knight’s TrainingAge 7: Page – personal servant of the Lord
8 So, You Want to be a Knight? A Knight’s TrainingAge 7: Page – personal servant of the LordAge 15: Squire – assistant to a Knight-- learn to handle: sword, lance, axe, bow & arrow
9 So, You Want to be a Knight? A Knight’s TrainingAge 7: Page – personal servant of the LordAge 15: Squire – assistant to a Knight-- learn to handle: sword, lance, axe, bow & arrowAfter you “prove yourself in battle” (around age 21)you could become a knight
10 “The Accolade” (right, 1901) and “Godspeed” (1900, below) by Edmund Blair Leighton
11 KnighthoodCeremonyLord (or King) touches your shoulder 3 times with swordand says, “I dub thee knight.”
15 Knights: Tournament Events Melee:Two groups of knights assembled in an open fieldBoth parties rode toward each other and fought anyone who came into range.The aim of the melee was to capture an opposing knight and hold him for a ransom. A typical ransom included the cost of a suit of armor or a horse.
16 Knights: Tournament Events Quintain:objective was to direct strokes at specified areas on a hanging post or shield.practice their aim with a lance, sword or battle axe.
17 Knights: Tournament Events Jousting:“unhorse” opponent with a lance
18 Code of Chivalry The Code of Chivalry By 1100s knights obey a code of chivalry—a set of ideals on how to actThey are:to protect weak and poor;serve feudal lord, God, & chosen lady"Stitching the Standard" by Edmund Blair Leighton: the lady prepares for a knight to go to war
19 The Literature of Chivalry Epic PoetryEpic poems recount a hero’s deeds and adventuresThe Song of Roland is about Charlemagne’s knights fighting MuslimsAnd now there comes the Archbishop. He spurs his horse, goes up into a mountain, summons the French; and he preached them a sermon: “Barons, my lords, [Charlemagne] left us in this place. We know our duty: to die like good men for our King. Fight to defend the holy Christian faith.”
20 The Literature of Chivalry Love Poems and SongsKnights’ duties to ladies are as important as those to their lordsIdeal, “chivalrous” love for one’s lord’s ladyTroubadours—traveling poet-musicians—write and sing short versesAbove and right: troubadours portrayed in illumined texts.
21 Siege Weapons Brutal Reality of Warfare Castles are huge fortresses where lords/ Kings live
33 Women’s Role in Feudal Society Status of WomenAccording to the Church and feudal society, women were inferior to menNoblewomenCan inherit land, defend castle, send knights to war on lord’s requestUsually confined to activities of the home or conventPeasant WomenMost labor in home and field, bear children, provide for familyPoor, powerless, do household tasks at young age
34 Convents provided women in the middle ages an alternative to married life. Childbirth was often deadly for women, so becoming a nun was a respectable and perhaps attractive alternative.