Presentation on theme: "Hinduism and Buddhism Chapter 3 Section 3. Vedanta “End of the Vedas” 700 B.C. –Indian religious thinkers questioned the authority of the Brahmins Vedanta."— Presentation transcript:
Vedanta “End of the Vedas” 700 B.C. –Indian religious thinkers questioned the authority of the Brahmins Vedanta Teachings collected in the Upanishads, which explained the Vedanta religion Ordinary people could not read or write, so they learned through teachings and stories
Vedanta Epics –Eventually the stories were combined into two epics The Mahabharata The Ramayana –Read last paragraph on p. 60 –What is the importance of these epics?
Societal Developments Between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 500 –Caste system Transformed Indian society –Created 4 distinct “varnas” Varna- social class
Varnas Rulers and Warriors Brahmins, priests, and scholars Merchants, traders, and farmers Peasants and others who did menial labor Pariahs, or “untouchables”- performed unclean jobs (read quote on p. 61)
Varnas Jati –Over time, the 4 varnas formed subgroups called Jati –A person was born into his/her parents’ jati –Very strict rules It determined: –Your job –Who you could eat with –Who you could marry
Discussion How would your life be different if a caste system existed in the United States? –Material possessions? –Boyfriends/Girlfriends? –Jobs? Agree or Disagree: Although not as explicit, a certain cycle exists today that would resemble a caste system. How can you change or continue the cycle?
Hinduism Gradually spread to become India’s major religion –Developed from the Brahmin priests’ explanations of the Vedas Brahman-the Hindu God –A divine essence that fills everything in the world Self/Atman –A person’s individual essence Brahman and Atman are one in the same –This means that all things in the universe are of the same essence as God
Hinduism Monistic –Belief in the unity of God and creation –Not monotheistic (belief in one god) Beliefs: –The world we see is an illusion, maya If people accept maya, they cannot be saved –It may take many lifetimes to fully recognize maya Reincarnation-rebirth of souls
Hinduism Dharma –Doing one’s moral duties Karma –Good or bad force created by a person’s actions Reincarnation –Fulfilling dharma and having good karma=higher social group –Those not living moral lives=lower social group or even animal
Hinduism Nirvana –Eventually, souls who grow will reach nirvana A perfect peace Soul unites with Brahman Brahman –Can be represented by a number of gods Ex. Vishnu the Preserver or Siva the Destroyer Even spirits of trees and animals But all are a part of Brahman Not polytheistic
Hinduism Practices –Yoga: Mental and physical exercises designed to bring the body and soul together –Festivals: Religious ceremonies combined with rituals, dancing, eating, and drinking –Sacred animals Especially cows, which are protected by law Why do you think cows are sacred to Hindus?
Hinduism So what’s with the red dot? –It is called a “bindi” –Today, many girls and women choose to sport a bindi –In the past, it was meant to represent status and a sign that means a woman is happily married
Buddhism Founded by Siddhartha Gautama –Buddha, or “Enlightened One” –Born in 563 B.C. in northern India Father was a wealthy prince Shielded from the harsh realities of life –At 29, he ventured from his home Shocked to learn of the tragedies of everyday life Vowed to discover the reasons for suffering
Buddha The Great Renunciation –Siddhartha left his home and lifestyle in search of truth and meaning Practiced yoga, meditated, and fasted until he nearly died None gave answers –After 6 years, he found the truth that formed the basis of life while meditating He became Buddha
Buddha Way of Life –Spent the remainder of life teaching followers to pursue the way to enlightenment Teachings –Reincarnation Believed the progress of the soul depends on the life a person leads –Salvation Comes from knowing the “Four Noble Truths” and following the “Eightfold Path”
Buddhism Ethics –Code of morals and conduct More important that ceremonies Stressed selflessness Did not accept the Hindu gods Believed priests should live in poverty Rejected the importance of the caste system –Believed any person could reach nirvana Rejected the Vedas as “sacred writings” Who do you think would embrace/reject these teachings?
Buddhism Read the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path –P. 64 –How do you stack up? Activity –Interview a classmate and record their responses to questions about the Eightfold Path
Buddhism The Spreading of Buddhism –Buddha only gained a few followers during his lifetime Split into 2 branches between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200 –Theravada Buddhism Believed Buddha was a great teacher and spiritual leader –Mahayana Buddhism Believed Buddha was a god and a savior Declined in India, but gained many followers in other parts of Asia –See map on p. 63
Draw the Venn Diagram below: Hinduism Buddhism Work in pairs to complete the diagram HW 10 pts